Welding Terminology

Welding Terminology

Welding terminology encompasses a variety of terms and concepts related to the process of joining metals through the application of heat or pressure.

Welding and metal joining encompass a wide-ranging and multifaceted subject matter that possesses its own specialized jargon. The American Welding Society acknowledges a staggering distinct welding and joining techniques, which can understandably appear overwhelming for novice welders.

This guide will explain the welding terminology you may encounter on job sites, shops, and manufacturing facilities where welding takes place.

Basic Welding Terms

  1. Welding:
    • The process of joining metals by melting and fusing them together.
  2. Welder:
    • A person skilled in the art and techniques of welding.
  3. Weldment:
    • The assembly of workpieces that are to be welded together.
  4. Joint:
    • The point where two or more workpieces are joined together.
  5. Weld Joint:
    • The specific configuration of the joint between two pieces to be welded.
  6. Welding Position:
    • The orientation of the weld in relation to the welder, such as flat, horizontal, vertical, or overhead.
  7. Welding Process:
    • The specific method or technique used to make a weld, such as MIG (Metal Inert Gas), TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), or stick welding.
  8. Arc Welding:
    • A welding process that uses an electric arc to create the heat necessary for welding.
  9. Welding Electrode:
    • A consumable or non-consumable material used to carry the electric current and generate the arc for welding.
  10. Welding Filler Metal:
    • Material added to the joint during welding to facilitate coalescence.
  11. Shielding Gas:
    • Gas used to protect the molten weld pool from atmospheric contamination in processes like MIG and TIG welding.
  12. Welding Flux:
    • Material used to prevent oxidation and contamination of the molten weld pool in processes like flux-cored arc welding.
  13. Weld Bead:
    • The metal deposited during welding, forming a raised portion along the joint.
  14. Weld Pool:
    • The molten metal during welding that solidifies to form the weld.
  15. Fusion:
    • The melting and mixing of base metal in the weld pool.
  16. Penetration:
    • The depth to which the weld extends below the surface of the base metal.
  17. Weld Seam:
    • A line resulting from the welding process, often used interchangeably with weld bead.
  18. Welding Symbols:
    • Symbols used on engineering drawings to indicate the details of the weld joint.
  19. Preheat:
    • The application of heat to the base metal before welding to reduce the risk of cracking.
  20. Post-weld Heat Treatment (PWHT)
    • Heat treatment applied to a weldment after welding to relieve residual stresses or alter the microstructure.
  21. Welding Inspection:
    • The process of examining welds to ensure they meet specified requirements and standards.

These terms provide a foundation for understanding the language used in the welding industry. Keep in mind that specific welding processes may have additional terminology associated with them.

Bead

A continuous line of fused metal is deposited on a joint or workpiece during the welding process, creating a solid connection between the two pieces of metal.

Bond

The connection at the interface between two or more pieces of metal being joined together. The goal of a bond is to achieve a durable joint between the two pieces capable of withstanding the stresses placed upon it in service.

Buttering

A method of using weld metal to build up a layer of weld area to provide metallurgical compatibility in joined pieces.

Cap

The final weld pass or passes that complete the weld joint. The cap pass will complete the desired size, geometric properties, and visual quality of the finished weld.

Deposition rate

The amount of weld metal deposited into the weld joint in a given amount of time.

Duty cycle

A widely accepted measure of a welding machine’s working capacity. The duty cycle rating is expressed as a percentage indicating the time a welding machine can operate at a specific amperage within ten minutes. For instance, a duty cycle of 60% at 300 amps means the machine can sustain operation at 300 amps for 6 out of every 10 minutes without risking overheating or harm.

Electrode

A metal wire utilized in arc welding processes to conduct electricity, establish circuit connectivity, and generate the characteristic “arc.” depending on the welding method, the electrode can also serve as a filler metal in mig, smaw (stick), or fcaw (flux-core welding). However, tig uses a “non-consumable” tungsten electrode that initiates and maintains an arc but uses a separate bare filler metal.

Fusion

The process where the base metals and filler metals are heated to the point of melting, resulting in their effective merging into a cohesive and uninterrupted piece of metal.

Multi-pass fillet weld

The sequential execution of multiple welding passes to attain the desired size of the weld and fulfill the requirements of the joint.

Heat-affected zone (HAZ)

The area closest to the weld that has been heated up due to the welding process and undergone metallurgical changes in its molecular structure as a result.

Parent metal

Also referred to as the “base metal,” the main component of material intended to be joined together. These terms are often used interchangeably to describe the primary material being worked on in welding processes.

Penetration

The depth at which the molten weld metal has been burned into the base metal or the weld joint.

Power source

A welding machine that generates the electrical energy required to perform the desired welding process.

Puddle

The molten pool of metal formed by heating the workpiece.

Stringer bead

A type of weld bead created by moving the welding torch or electrode in a straight line along the joint, resulting in a weld bead resembling a string.

Spatter

Pieces of metal that have been effectively expelled from the arc due to arc transfer, landed on, and may have burned into the base metal outside the weld area.

Weld pool

The portion of the weld that is in a liquid molten state during the welding process. See also “Puddle.”

Weldment

A structure or component formed by joining multiple metal pieces using welding techniques. It involves carefully preparing base materials and using precise welding methods to create a solid and durable bond between the joined pieces.

Molten metal

Metal that has been heated to the point that it is in a liquid state.

Weave

A technique where the welding torch or electrode is moved in a zigzag pattern along the joint. This technique helps to distribute heat evenly, ensure proper fusion, and create a wider weld bead.

Weld metal

The metal that is deposited during the welding process to create the joint. The melted and fused material forms the actual weld, joining the base metals together.

Weld bead

See “Bead.”

Weld root

The point where the joint between two base metals is narrowest and closest together. It is the region where the initial fusion and welding of the materials begin. Also referred to as “Root Pass.”

Electric arc

A discharge of electric current between two conductive electrodes, creating a luminous plasma column of ionized gas. It produces intense heat, light, and the necessary energy for various industrial processes, including welding, cutting, and metal melting.

Welding arc

The sustained electric discharge that occurs between the welding electrode and the workpiece during the welding process. It generates intense heat, melting the metal and allowing for the fusion and bonding of the welded materials.

Electrical current

The electricity that jumps through the arc gap between the electrode and the metal being joined.

Welding power source

The machine that provides electricity sufficient to provide the amperage or voltage required to perform the desired welding process. A power source may be powered by electricity or an engine-driven machine.

Arc rays

The intense and concentrated rays of light emitted from the electric arc during welding or cutting processes. They contain ultraviolet (UV), visible, and infrared (IR) radiation, which can harm the eyes and skin if proper safety measures, such as wearing protective eyewear and clothing, are not taken.

Arc blow

A phenomenon in welding where the electric arc is deflected or deviates from its intended path due to magnetic forces. It can result in an unstable and erratic arc, leading to difficulties in maintaining proper weld quality and control.

End of the electrode

The extreme end point of a welding electrode that touches the base metal and initiates the arc. This part must be clean and free of dirt or debris to make a clean and proper start to a weld.

Welders

A skilled individual who specializes in the art and technique of joining metal parts through welding processes. They operate welding equipment, interpret blueprints or specifications, and execute precise welds to create strong and structurally sound connections.

Wire feeder

The part of the machine that uses a system of rollers to pull the welding wire from the spool and guide it to the weld joint.

American Welding Society

A professional organization that promotes the science, technology, and application of welding and allies joining and cutting processes worldwide, including brazing, soldering, and thermal spraying. It also offers a wide array of welding codes and qualifications for welders and inspectors working in the welding industry.

Welding terminology

Terms specific to welders and welding processes and operations.

Welding Materials

FILLER MATERIALS:

Consumable electrode

A welding electrode consumed or melted during the welding process to contribute to the formation of the weld. It provides the heat source and the filler metal required for joining the workpieces.

Non-consumable electrode

A type of welding electrode that does not melt or get consumed during the welding process. It serves as a conductive tool to initiate and maintain the electric arc, while a separate filler metal may be used to add material to the weld joint if needed.

Flux

A material used in welding to shield the molten metal and the welding area from atmospheric contamination and oxidation. It creates a protective layer or gas that prevents impurities from affecting the quality of the weld, ensuring a strong and clean joint.

Shielding gas

A gas that is used during the welding process to shield the molten weld puddle from atmospheric contamination during the welding process.

Welding rod

A consumable electrode, typically coated and used in SMAW.

Welding wire

A consumable wire used in welding processes to provide the filler metal required for joining two or more base metals together. It is fed through a welding torch or electrode holder and melts along with the base metals to create a strong and continuous weld.

Brazing alloy

A consumable filler metal used in the brazing process that is melted into the brazed joint and bonds through capillary action. It is important to note that brazing does not liquefy or melt the base metal.

Solder

A consumable filler metal that is melted onto a connection but does not liquify the base metal. Due to the relatively low heat used in soldering (usually no more than 350 degrees Fahrenheit), soldering is commonly used in small electric connections.

Filler metal

A metal or alloy that is consumed into the weld during the welding process to complete the desired joint and provide the necessary joint requirements.

Carbon arc electrode

A non-consumable electrode typically made of graphite or similar material. It is used in arc gouging applications to remove welds or back gouge weld joints when combined with compressed air. Carbon arc electrodes are commonly used in heavy equipment maintenance and repair tasks.

Active fluxes

A flux that changes the completed weld’s chemical structure and is usually dependent on welding parameters within the process used. Commonly used in submerged arc welding.

Ratio of the weight of filler metal

The ratio determined by the amount of filler metal used in the joint to the amount of base metal in the designated weld joint.

Root of a fillet weld

The first pass deposited in a fillet weld joint that most immediately fills pieces in the desired weld joint.

Flow rate of shielding gas

The rate at which the protective gas is delivered from the gas supply to the welding zone during a welding process. It is typically measured in units of volume per time, such as cubic feet per hour (CFH) or liters per minute (LPM).

Metal particles

Very small, usually powdery type of particles of metal that can be generated during welding, cutting, and grinding operations. These airborne particles can pose a severe health risk to the welder if inhaled.

BASE METALS

Carbon steel

The most common metal used in the welding industry due to its strength, weldability, and relatively low cost. Carbon steels are divided into low-carbon, mild-carbon, and high-carbon steels. High carbon steel is typically used in high strength or applications requiring toughness or corrosion resistance.

Stainless steel

A type of steel that is low in carbon content (less than 0.08% in grade 304 stainless) and has a chromium content of approximately 18% (depending on the type and grade being used). Stainless steel is often used where corrosion resistance is required and is commonly found in many high-heat applications.

Aluminum

An alloy that offers lightweight but good structural rigidity simultaneously. Highly conductive of electric energy and is highly resistant to oxidation.

Copper

A highly ductile metal known for its exceptional conductivity, both electrically and thermally. It has extensive use in various applications, such as electrical cables, wires, and components, plumbing pipes and fittings, and the food processing industry.

Brass

A copper-based alloy that contains both copper and zinc added. Brass offers high resistance to corrosion and good conductivity to thermal and electrical energy. Highly malleable and is often used in decorative applications and the manufacture of many musical instruments.

Bronze

A copper-based alloy containing tin with other metals and non-metals such as phosphorus and silicone. Very malleable but strong, hard, and corrosion-resistant, commonly used in statues, decorative objects, and musical instruments.

Cast iron

A carbon-rich alloy, typically containing 2-4% carbon, known for its strength but brittleness. It is commonly employed in construction, machine tools, and household items. Welding cast iron can be challenging due to its low ductility, as it tends to crack instead of stretching or deforming when exposed to heat and stress.

Nickel alloys

Alloys that primarily contain nickel combined with chromium, molybdenum copper, and others provide a high heat and corrosion-resistant metal. They are often used in process pipe to transport hazardous chemicals.

Titanium

A naturally occurring element that, when alloyed with aluminum and molybdenum, creates a metal known for its strength and lightness. It possesses comparable strength to steel while being significantly less dense. Welding titanium typically involves the use of a sealed, purged chamber.

Magnesium

A lightweight and combustible metal that shares similarities with aluminum in terms of appearance, low weight, and a relatively low melting point. It finds limited usage in aerospace and automotive applications due to these advantageous properties.

Mild steel

A steel alloy that is commonly used in fabrication and manufacturing applications due to its weldability and strength.

Industrial steel

A term used to describe commonly used steel in the construction and manufacturing industries. These steels have been designed for various strength requirements, ductility, corrosion, or abrasion resistance.

Welding Processes

ARC WELDING

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) or Metal Inert Gas (MIG

A welding process that uses a solid wire electrode and shielding gas to create a weld. A semi-automatic process that is widely used in manufacturing and custom metal shops.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) or Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG

A welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and shielding gas (typically argon) to create a weld. It is a process that offers lower heat inputs and great operator control, commonly used in welding alloys such as stainless steel and nickel-based alloys.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW

A welding process using a flux-coated consumable rod or “stick” that serves as electrode and filler metal. It is commonly used in construction, maintenance, and repair applications.

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

A welding process that uses a continuous wire electrode and a granular flux to create a weld. The weld is shielded by the flux, which melts and solidifies to form a protective slag. A process used mainly in manufacturing, known for high deposition rates.

Flux-cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

A welding process that uses a tubular wire electrode with a flux core. The flux core welding process is divided into two separate processes; FCAW-G, “G,” meaning gas shielded, and FCAW-S, “S,” meaning self-shielded; no shielding gas required. It is commonly used in construction and manufacturing applications.

Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)

A welding process that uses a high-temperature plasma arc to create a weld. It is commonly used in aerospace and high-precision applications.

GAS WELDING

Oxy-fuel welding (OFW)

A welding process that uses fuel gases and oxygen to create a flame that melts the metal being welded. It is commonly used in welding and brazing applications.

Oxy-acetylene welding (OAW)

A type of oxy-fuel welding that uses acetylene as the fuel gas. It is commonly used in welding and cutting applications.

Oxy-propane welding (OPW)

A type of oxy-fuel welding that uses propane as the fuel gas. It is commonly used in welding and brazing applications.

Inert gas

A gas that does not react with the metal being welded and is used to shield the weld from the surrounding air. Examples include argon, helium, and nitrogen. Inert gas is commonly used in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

A gas commonly used in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. It can be used as a shielding gas or as a component of a flux-cored wire to create a weld. CO2 can also be used in carbonation processes, such as in producing carbonated beverages.

RESISTANCE WELDING

Spot welding

A resistance welding process that joins two or more metal surfaces by applying pressure and heat at a specific spot. It is commonly used in automotive and manufacturing applications.

Seam welding

A resistance welding process that creates a continuous weld along the length of two metal sheets or plates. It is commonly used in manufacturing applications for creating gas or liquid-tight seals.

Projection welding

A resistance welding process that uses specially designed electrodes to create a weld at a specific point or projection on the metal surface. It is commonly used in automotive and manufacturing applications.

Flash welding

A resistance welding process that uses a rapid discharge of electrical energy to create a weld. It is commonly used in high-speed manufacturing applications.

Upset welding

A resistance welding process that uses pressure to create a weld between two metal parts. It is commonly used in aerospace and automotive applications.

Seam weld

A continuous weld created by a welding process that runs along the length of two metal sheets or plates.

Solid piece

A piece of metal that is joined to another piece of metal using a welding process, creating a single, continuous unit.

SOLID STATE WELDING

Friction welding

Sometimes referred to as friction stir welding, friction welding is a solid-state welding process that uses heat generated by friction between two metal parts to create a weld. It is commonly used in aerospace, automotive, and manufacturing applications.

Forge welding

A welding process that uses heat and pressure to join two metal parts. It is commonly used in blacksmithing and metalworking applications.

Cold welding

A welding process that joins two metal surfaces without heat, typically by applying pressure to the surfaces to be joined. It is commonly used in space and vacuum applications.

Ultrasonic welding

A welding process that uses high-frequency vibrations to create heat and bond two metal parts together. It is commonly used in plastic and metal welding applications.

Explosive welding

A welding process that uses controlled explosives to create a high-velocity collision to bond two metal surfaces together. It is commonly used in aerospace and military applications. The pieces formed by an explosion weld are commonly referred to as cladding. A great way to join dissimilar metals together

Carbon arc

A welding process that uses a carbon electrode to create an arc that melts the metal to be welded. It is commonly used in welding and cutting applications.

AUTOMATIC WELDING

Automatic welding

A welding process that uses automated equipment to perform the welding operation. It is commonly used in manufacturing and fabrication applications.

High frequency

A rapid oscillation of electrical current that alternates between the positive and negative fields in a cyclical manner. It is commonly employed in welding to initiate an arc or for plasma cutting. However, AC current is typically preferred for its polarity when TIG welding aluminum.

Constant current

A type of welding power source that maintains a continuous current during welding. It is commonly used in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or stick welding (SMAW) processes.

Direct current

A type of electrical current that flows in one direction only. It is commonly used in welding processes, including gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW).

Maximum short circuit current

The maximum current that can flow through a welding circuit during a short circuit event. It is an important safety consideration in welding operations.

Resistance of current flow

The resistance to electrical current flow in a welding circuit. It is an important consideration in choosing the appropriate welding power source for a specific welding process.

Constant adjusting of controls

The need or ability to continuously adjust welding parameters such as voltage, current, and wire speed during a welding operation to achieve the desired weld quality. TIG, for example, offers a relatively high amount of operator control during welding operations. This is an important skill for welders to possess.

ARC CUTTING AND OTHER PROCESSES

Air carbon arc cutting/Gouging

A cutting process that uses a carbon electrode and compressed air to generate high heat and melt the metal, which is then removed with compressed air.

Arc cutting

A cutting process that uses an electric arc to melt and remove metal from the workpiece.

Cutting process

A manufacturing process that removes material from a workpiece to produce a desired shape or size.

High-temperature

A temperature that is significantly above room temperature, typically used in welding and cutting processes.

Melting point

The temperature at which a solid material transitions to a liquid state.

Metal parts

Components or structures made of metal that are used in manufacturing or construction.

Pieces of metal

Small sections of metal used in manufacturing or construction.

Surface of the metal

The outermost layer of a metal part, which is most immediately visible, which can be treated or coated for specific purposes.

Weld-metal test specimen

A sample of metal that has been welded and is used to test the strength and quality of the weld. It is commonly used in welding inspection and testing.

CUTTING AND WELD REMOVAL

Back gouging

The process of grinding or using other methods, such as carbon arc gouging or scarfing, to remove material from the backside of a weld. This allows for welding from the opposite side and ensures complete joint penetration, enhancing the strength and integrity of the weld.

Scarfing

A widely utilized technique for removing welds without causing damage to the base metal. It involves heating the weld using an oxygen/acetylene torch and delicately applying oxygen to gouge out the weld. While common cutting tips can be used, specialized tips are designed specifically for efficient and precise scarfing of welds.

Welding Positions

STANDARD POSITIONS

Welding positions are often presented by the number and the type of joint to be welded; “G” denotes a groove weld, and “F” denotes a fillet weld.

Flat position (1G, 1F)

In the flat position, a weld is created with the workpiece lying horizontally, and the weld metal is deposited on the upper surface of the piece.

Horizontal position (2G, 2F)

In the horizontal position, the weld is performed on a vertically positioned workpiece, where the welder moves from one side to the other to create the weld joint.

Vertical position (3G, 3F)

In the vertical position, the weld is conducted on a workpiece oriented in a straight vertical orientation, either from the bottom to the top (vertical-up) or from the top to the bottom (vertical-down). The welding process progresses in the chosen direction to form the weld joint.

Overhead position (4G, 4F)

In the overhead position, the welding is performed on a workpiece positioned above the welder. The welder typically works in an upward direction, against the force of gravity, to create the weld joint. This position requires special techniques and considerations due to the challenging nature of welding overhead.

PIPE POSITIONS

Horizontal rolled position (1G)

In the horizontal rolled position, the pipe is placed in a nearly level orientation and then rotated, allowing the weld to be executed as if it were in the flat position throughout its entirety. This technique enables the weld to be made consistently along a horizontal plane.

Horizontal fixed position (5G)

In the horizontal fixed position, the pipe remains stationary and is set in a nearly level position. The weld is then executed either from the top downward or from the bottom upward, depending on specific code requirements, the welding process, and the type of welding rods utilized.

Inclined fixed position (6G)

In the inclined fixed position, the pipe is set at a 45-degree incline and cannot be rotated or turned during the welding process. The weld is carried out while maintaining the fixed inclination of the pipe, presenting a specific challenge for the welder.

Vertical fixed position (2G)

In the vertical fixed position, the pipe is positioned vertically without the ability to move or rotate. The weld is subsequently performed in the horizontal position, maintaining the vertical alignment of the pipe throughout the welding process.

Welding Joints

JOINT TYPES

Butt joint

A weld joint made by putting two pieces of pipe or plate together, end to end and welded.

Corner joint

A weld joint made by bringing two pieces together at a 90-degree angle (possibly more or less depending on the job requirements) and welded on the inside, outside, or both sides of the joint.

Edge joint

A weld joint made by placing two sheets or plates together and welding the outer edge.

Lap joint

A weld joint made by laying one plate on top of another and welding the connection point.

Tee joint

A weld made by placing one plate perpendicular to another and forming a part in a “T” appearance.

JOINT PREPARATION

Bevel

The angled preparation made on a plate or pipe to be joined. It is created to ensure sufficient penetration in the weld joint, allowing for a strong and secure connection.

Root opening (gap)

The distance or space between the two metal pieces to be joined together in a welding joint. The size of the root opening can vary significantly depending on the specific welding process employed.

Root face (land)

A flat portion of the joint intentionally left without beveling. It serves the purpose of retaining heat and regulating the depth of penetration in the weld joint. The size of the root face can vary considerably depending on the welding process employed.

Groove

An opening in two pieces of plate or pipe to be joined comprised of two bevels, i.e., angles and an opening, to allow adequate joint penetration in the weld to be performed.

Partial joint penetration

A weld joint design where the weld is intentionally required to penetrate only to a certain depth within the joint without extending all the way through. This design allows for control over the penetration depth based on the specific welding requirements and structural considerations.

Complete joint penetration

A weld joint that requires the weld to penetrate all the way through the entire depth of the joint.

Welding Defects

Cracks

Defects identified by the presence of fractures or breaks in the base metal or weld. They can significantly compromise the integrity and strength of the material or joint.

Porosity

Small holes or voids in a weld, typically displaying a relatively consistent circular pattern. This defect is often caused by the introduction of moisture in the base metal or welding electrodes and the presence of impurities like dirt, grease, oil, or paint within the weld joint.

Slag inclusions

Occurs when the slag residue from a previous weld pass is not sufficiently removed, and subsequent hot passes fail to eliminate it, resulting in its entrapment within the weld layers.

Lack of fusion / incomplete fusion

A defect that occurs when the weld does not burn into or penetrate the base metal or other weld passes and leaves a void in between.

Undercut

A discontinuity that occurs when the base metal has been removed from the weld joint but not adequately filled in with weld metal. It can be caused by excessive heat, too fast a travel speed, improper travel angle, or a combination of the above.

Overlap (rollover)

A defect that occurs when excessive metal is deposited into a weld joint and does not sufficiently fuse or burn into the outer portion of the weld

Distortion

A discontinuity that occurs when there is warping and waviness in the base metal (usually sheet metal and plate sections) and has a non-uniform appearance. It is often caused by excessive heat input.

Burn through

A discontinuity that occurs when excessive heat from a weld pass melts through either the base metal or other weld passes, often leaving a hanging piece of base metal or weld metal on the inside of the welded piece.

Wormhole

A porosity discontinuity that produces an elongated pore in the weld. Often found in FCAW-G welding, particularly where wind or moisture is present.

Arc strike/arc burn

Defects that occur when residual slag from a previous weld pass is not adequately cleaned, leading to its entrapment within subsequent weld passes. Rather than being properly burned off, the slag becomes trapped within the weld layers, compromising the integrity of the weld.

Cold lap

Also known as lack of fusion, cold lap is a welding defect that arises when the deposited weld metal fails to properly fuse with the base metal, resulting in poor adhesion and a lack of penetration into the base metal. This defect is commonly observed in GMAW (MIG) welding processes.

Welding Equipment

Chipping hammer

A hammer with a point on one side and a flat edge on the other, used to chip slag from welds.

Electrode holder

Commonly known as a “stinger,” it is a device used to secure and hold the welding electrode in place during Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW).

Ground clamp

A spring-loaded clamp that ensures a secure connection between the ground cable and the workpiece in welding applications.

Welding pliers (often abbreviated to Welpers)

Pliers designed specifically for welders, typically used in MIG welding to clean the nozzle, change tips, and cut welding wire.

Welding torch

A torch that uses oxygen that, when mixed with a fuel gas (propane, MAP gas, acetylene, etc.), can be used to weld, braze or cut metal.

Rosebud torch

A torch, typically fueled by a combination of oxygen and acetylene, which is employed to apply heat to metal. It is utilized for various purposes, such as pre-heating metal before welding or bending it into desired shapes.

Rod oven

A heated storage container designed to maintain low-hydrogen welding rods at a specific temperature, ensuring they remain dry and protected from moisture contamination during storage.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

Personal protective equipment (PPE)

A collection of essential items, including a welding helmet, safety glasses, welding gloves, welding apron, respirator, and earplugs. These items are specifically designed and utilized to safeguard welders from the harmful effects of UV rays emitted by the welding arc, noise exposure, and fumes generated during the welding process.

Powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) hood

A welding hood that encloses the welder’s head and neck and is connected by a hose to a filtration system that filters out contaminants in the area and keeps clean air supplied in the welding hood.

Fume extractor

A device that pulls air and fumes generated from welding operations out of the immediate area where the weld is being performed, significantly reducing fume exposure to welding personnel.

Other Welding Terms

INSPECTION AND TESTING

Visual inspection

A technique employed to examine welds by visually inspecting the finished weld to detect any visible irregularities or defects. This method is primarily focused on identifying surface discontinuities in the weld.

Dye penetrant testing

A method of weld examination performed by spraying a penetrant from an aerosol can onto a welded part. Capillary action draws the penetrant into a potential discontinuity which is then revealed by means of a color contrast developer. Limited to surface-level discontinuities.

Magnetic particle testing

A testing method used to detect surface or near-surface defects in welds and other metallic structures. It involves creating a magnetic field and applying iron particles, which reveal the presence of any defects or disruptions in the magnetic field.

Radiographic testing

An examination method that utilizes radiation to capture an image on film, revealing any potential discontinuities within the completed weld. This technique provides a comprehensive view of the entire weld, from the root pass to the final cap.

Ultrasonic testing

Weld examination technique that involves acoustic (sound) energy passed through the part and detects discontinuities in the completed weld. Great for detecting weld discontinuities through the entire depth of the weld.

Eddy current testing

A magnetic particle examination method employing two probes to induce an electrical current in a conductive metal to detect discontinuities. This technique can identify potential flaws or irregularities in the material being tested by analyzing the resulting electromagnetic fields.

Weld test

A specific weld created and inspected to assess the welder’s skill in producing a high-quality weld or to validate welding procedures. It serves as a means to evaluate and ensure the integrity and proficiency of the welding process.

Defect

A discontinuity in a material or weld that surpasses permissible limits and necessitates repair or replacement. It signifies an unacceptable flaw that needs corrective measures to ensure the desired quality and functionality.

Discontinuity

Any irregularity or interruption in the uniformity of a part or weld. It is important to note that a discontinuity does not automatically indicate a defect. The presence of a discontinuity does not necessarily exceed the acceptable limits defined by the relevant code, and further evaluation is required to determine its compliance.

Welding Terminology

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