What is agglomeration in metallurgy?

Agglomeration in metallurgy

Agglomeration in metallurgy refers to the process of forming larger particles or aggregates from smaller particles of metal powders or fines. It involves the binding or bonding of fine particles together to create larger, cohesive structures that are easier to handle and process.

Agglomeration is commonly employed in the metallurgical industry for various purposes, such as improving the handling characteristics of metal powders, enhancing their flowability, reducing dust generation, and facilitating subsequent processing steps like melting, sintering, or smelting. By agglomerating fine particles into larger agglomerates, the material’s bulk density can also be increased, which can be advantageous for transportation and storage.

Several methods are utilized for agglomeration in metallurgy, including:


This process involves heating the metal powders below their melting point but high enough to cause the particles to bond together. Sintering is commonly used for iron ore fines to produce agglomerates called “sinter,” which are then used as feedstock in the iron and steel industry.


It involves forming small spherical or cylindrical pellets from metal powders or concentrates. This is typically achieved by adding a binder or moisture to the powders and then agitating or tumbling them in a pelletizing drum or disc. The pellets are subsequently hardened by either thermal treatment or chemical reactions.


This method involves compressing metal powders or fines into briquettes using mechanical pressure. Binders or additives may be used to improve the cohesion and strength of the briquettes. Briquettes are often used in the production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals as a means of recycling and reducing waste.


Granulation involves forming granules or granular agglomerates by combining metal powders with a liquid binder or adhesive. The mixture is then agitated or processed through granulation equipment to form the desired granules. Granulation is often used in the production of certain alloys and as a precursor to subsequent processes like smelting or refining.


Balling is a specific type of agglomeration used primarily in the iron ore industry. It involves the formation of small balls, known as green balls, from finely ground iron ore concentrates or powders. The green balls are typically created by adding water or a binder to the ore fines and agglomerating them in a balling drum or disc. The green balls are then further processed through processes like drying, induration, and firing to produce hardened pellets suitable for ironmaking.

Agglomeration aids:

In some cases, agglomeration aids or binders are added to the metal powders or fines to enhance agglomeration. These binders can be organic or inorganic substances that promote particle adhesion and cohesion during the agglomeration process. Common binders include bentonite, clay, starch, lime, cement, and various polymers. The selection of the binder depends on factors such as the type of metal, desired properties of the agglomerate, and the specific agglomeration method employed.

Agglomerate properties:

The properties of the agglomerates formed through agglomeration can be tailored to meet specific requirements. Factors that influence the properties include the size and shape of the particles, the type and amount of binder used, the agglomeration method employed, and the subsequent processing steps. The density, strength, porosity, permeability, and reactivity of the agglomerates can all be adjusted to suit the intended application or downstream processes.

Agglomeration equipment:

Various types of equipment are utilized in agglomeration processes, depending on the desired agglomerate size and the specific materials involved. Examples include balling drums or discs, pelletizing equipment, briquetting machines, granulators, and fluidized beds. These equipment designs aim to provide agitation, compression, or other mechanisms to facilitate particle bonding and agglomerate formation.

Environmental considerations:

Agglomeration can also have environmental benefits. By agglomerating fine particles, the generation of dust during handling, storage, and transportation can be minimized, leading to improved workplace conditions and reduced air pollution. Additionally, agglomeration can promote recycling and utilization of waste materials, such as metal fines or by-products, thereby reducing the environmental impact associated with their disposal.

Overall, agglomeration is a crucial process in metallurgy that enables the efficient utilization of metal powders and fines. It offers advantages such as improved handling, reduced dust generation, enhanced flowability, increased bulk density, and the ability to recycle and reuse materials. Agglomerates formed through this process serve as valuable feedstock for various metallurgical operations, including smelting, sintering, ironmaking, and alloy production.

Overall, agglomeration in metallurgy plays a vital role in improving the handling, processing, and overall efficiency of metal powders and fines, enabling their effective utilization in various metallurgical processes.

What is agglomeration in metallurgy?

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