# Thermodynamics viva questions

• What is the first law of thermodynamics and how is it expressed mathematically?
• What is the second law of thermodynamics and why is it important?
• What is entropy and how does it relate to the second law of thermodynamics?
• What is the difference between internal energy and enthalpy?
• What is the definition of work in thermodynamics?
• What is the difference between an open, closed, and isolated system?
• What is the Carnot cycle and why is it important?
• What is a heat engine and how does it work?
• What is the Clausius-Clapeyron equation?
• What is the ideal gas law and when is it applicable?
• What is specific heat capacity and how is it measured?
• What is the difference between reversible and irreversible processes?
• What is the concept of free energy?
• What is the relationship between free energy and spontaneity?
• What is Gibbs-Helmholtz equation and how is it used?
• What is the difference between an isothermal and adiabatic process?
• What is the definition of heat capacity and how is it related to temperature change?
• What is the definition of thermal efficiency in the context of a heat engine?
• What is the definition of entropy change and how is it related to the reversible heat transfer?
• What is the difference between an exothermic and endothermic process?
• What is the definition of thermodynamics?
• What are the different types of energy?
• What is the difference between work and heat?
• What is the relationship between temperature and energy?
• What is the definition of temperature?
• What is the definition of heat?
• What is the definition of pressure?
• What is the definition of volume?
• What is the definition of enthalpy?
• What is the definition of internal energy?
• What is the difference between heat and temperature?
• What is the difference between enthalpy and internal energy?
• What is the difference between heat and work?
• What is the difference between heat capacity and specific heat?
• What is the definition of a state function?
• What is the difference between a state function and a path function?
• What is the definition of a reversible process?
• What is the definition of an irreversible process?
• What is the definition of a cycle?
• What is the difference between an open and a closed system?
• What is the definition of an adiabatic process?
• What is the definition of an isobaric process?
• What is the definition of an isochoric process?
• What is the definition of an isothermal process?
• What is the definition of an adiabatic wall?
• What is the definition of a piston?
• What is the definition of a heat reservoir?
• What is the definition of thermal equilibrium?
• What is the definition of a reversible heat engine?
• What is the definition of a Carnot engine?
• What is the definition of a Carnot cycle?
• What is the definition of a heat pump?
• What is the definition of a refrigeration cycle?
• What is the definition of a thermodynamic process?
• What is the definition of a thermodynamic system?
• What is the definition of a thermodynamic property?
• What is the definition of a thermodynamic equation of state?
• What is the definition of an equation of state?
• What is the definition of the ideal gas law?
• What is the definition of the van der Waals equation?
• What is the definition of the compressibility factor?
• What is the definition of the reduced temperature and pressure?
• What is the definition of the critical temperature and pressure?
• What is the definition of the Boyle temperature?
• What is the definition of the Joule-Thomson effect?
• What is the definition of the Clapeyron equation?
• What is the definition of the phase rule?
• What is the definition of a phase transition?
• What is the difference between a first-order and a second-order phase transition?
• What is the definition of the enthalpy of fusion?
• What is the definition of the enthalpy of vaporization?
• What is the definition of the enthalpy of sublimation?
• What is the definition of the entropy of fusion?
• What is the definition of the entropy of vaporization?
• What is the definition of the entropy of sublimation?
• What is the definition of the Gibbs free energy?
• What is the definition of the Helmholtz free energy?
• What is the definition of the chemical potential?
• What is the definition of the activity?
• What is the definition of the fugacity?
• What is the definition of the partition function?
• What is the definition of the Boltzmann factor?
• What is the definition of the Maxwell relations?
• What is the definition of the Gibbs-Duhem equation?
• What is the definition of the Le Chatelier’s principle?
• What is the definition of the Clausius inequality?
• What is the definition of the second law efficiency?
• What is the definition of the Coefficient of Performance?
• What is the definition of the reversible work?
• What is the definition of the Irreversible work?
• What is the definition of the specific heat ratio?
• What is the definition of the thermal conductivity?
• What is the definition of the thermal diffusivity?
• What is the definition of the Prandtl number?
• What is the definition of the Reynolds number?
• What is the definition of the Nusselt number?
• What is the definition of the Biot number?
• What is the definition of the Stanton number?
• What is the definition of the Peclet number?
• What is the definition of the Grashof number?
• What is the definition of the Rayleigh number?
• What is the definition of the Mach number?
• What is the definition of the Knudsen number?
• What is the definition of the Stefan-Boltzmann law?
• What is the definition of the Wien’s law?
• What is the definition of the Planck’s law?
• What is the definition of the Kirchhoff’s law?
• What is the definition of a thermodynamic cycle?
• What is the difference between a heat engine and a heat pump?
• What is the definition of a reversible heat pump?
• What is the difference between a reversible and an irreversible heat pump?
• What is the definition of a thermal reservoir?
• What is the difference between an intensive and an extensive property?
• What is the definition of a chemical reaction?
• What is the definition of a chemical equilibrium?
• What is the difference between an exothermic and an endothermic reaction?
• What is the definition of a heat exchanger?
• What is the difference between a counterflow and a parallel flow heat exchanger?
• What is the definition of a steam turbine?
• What is the difference between a Rankine cycle and a Brayton cycle?
• What is the definition of a refrigerant?
• What is the difference between a compressor and an expander?
• What is the definition of a combustion reaction?
• What is the definition of a stoichiometric mixture?
• What is the definition of a calorimeter?
• What is the definition of the enthalpy of formation?
• What is the definition of the enthalpy of combustion?
• What is the definition of the heat of reaction?
• What is the definition of a calorimetry experiment?
• What is the definition of a phase diagram?
• What is the difference between a liquid and a gas?
• What is the definition of a supercritical fluid?
• What is the definition of the triple point?
• What is the definition of a critical point?
• What is the definition of a pure substance?
• What is the definition of a mixture?
• What is the definition of a solution?
• What is the definition of an ideal solution?
• What is the definition of a non-ideal solution?
• What is the definition of the partial molar volume?
• What is the definition of the chemical potential of a component in a mixture?
• What is the definition of the activity coefficient?
• What is the definition of a colligative property?
• What is the difference between a dilute and a concentrated solution?
• What is the definition of an electrolyte solution?
• What is the definition of the Debye-Hückel theory?
• What is the definition of a redox reaction?
• What is the difference between heat and temperature?
• What is the definition of the Carnot cycle?
• What is the difference between a reversible and an irreversible process?
• What is the definition of the first law of thermodynamics?
• What is the definition of the second law of thermodynamics?
• What is the definition of the third law of thermodynamics?
• What is the definition of the entropy?
• What is the difference between a closed system and an open system?
• What is the definition of a state function?
• What is the definition of the internal energy of a system?
• What is the definition of the work done by a system?
• What is the definition of the heat transferred by a system?
• What is the definition of the specific heat capacity of a substance?
• What is the difference between a heat capacity and a specific heat capacity?
• What is the definition of the adiabatic process?
• What is the definition of the isothermal process?
• What is the definition of the isobaric process?
• What is the definition of the isochoric process?
• What is the definition of the heat of fusion?
• What is the definition of the heat of vaporization?
• What is the definition of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation?
• What is the definition of the Gibbs free energy?
• What is the difference between a spontaneous and a non-spontaneous process?
• What is the definition of the chemical potential?
• What is the definition of the fugacity?
• What is the definition of the ideal gas law?
• What is the definition of the compressibility factor?
• What is the difference between a real gas and an ideal gas?
• What is the definition of the virial equation of state?
• What is the definition of the van der Waals equation of state?
• What is the definition of the Joule-Thomson effect?
• What is the definition of the adiabatic expansion?
• What is the definition of the isentropic process?
• What is the definition of the thermal efficiency?
• What is the definition of the coefficient of performance of a heat pump?
• What is the definition of the refrigeration capacity of a refrigeration cycle?
• What is the difference between a steady-state and a transient process?
• What is the definition of the boundary work?
• What is the definition of the non-boundary work?
• What is the difference between a reversible and an irreversible work?
• What is the definition of the thermodynamic equilibrium?
• What is the difference between an isolated and a closed system?
• What is the definition of the internal energy of a gas?
• What is the definition of the enthalpy of a gas?
• What is the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a gas?
• What is the difference between a pure substance and a mixture?
• What is the definition of the partial pressure of a gas?
• What is the difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture?
• What is the definition of the enthalpy change of a reaction?
• What is the definition of the entropy change of a reaction?
• What is the definition of the Gibbs free energy change of a reaction?
• What is the definition of the standard state of a substance?
• What is the definition of the standard enthalpy of formation?
• What is the definition of the standard entropy of a substance?
• What is the definition of the standard Gibbs free energy of a substance?
• What is the definition of the chemical potential of a gas?
• What is the definition of the ideal gas constant?
• What is the definition of the Avogadro’s number?
• What is the definition of the Boltzmann’s constant?
• What is the definition of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution?
• What is the definition of the Clausius inequality?
• What is the definition of the Carnot efficiency?
• What is the definition of the Otto cycle?
• What is the definition of the Diesel cycle?
• What is the definition of the Stirling cycle?
• What is the definition of the Brayton cycle?
• What is the definition of the thermoelectric effect?
• What is the definition of the Seebeck coefficient?
• What is the definition of the Peltier coefficient?
• What is the definition of the Thomson coefficient?
• What is the definition of the heat of solution?
• What is the definition of the activity?
• What is the definition of the fugacity coefficient?
• What is the definition of the virial coefficient?
• What is the definition of the thermal conductivity of a substance?
• What is the definition of the mass transfer coefficient?
• What is the definition of the heat transfer coefficient?
• What is the definition of the convective heat transfer?
• What is the definition of the radiative heat transfer?
• What is the definition of the thermal resistance?