# THEORY OF MACHINES VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

I can certainly help you with some sample questions and answers related to the Theory of Machines.

## Q: What is the difference between kinematics and dynamics?

A: Kinematics is the study of motion without considering the forces that cause it, whereas dynamics is the study of motion with consideration of the forces that cause it.

## Q: Define displacement and distance.

A: Displacement is the change in position of an object in a specific direction, whereas distance is the total length traveled by an object without any regard to direction.

## Q: What is the principle of virtual work?

A: The principle of virtual work states that if a system is in equilibrium, the virtual work done by all external forces on the system is zero.

## Q: Define cam.

A: A cam is a mechanical device that is used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating or oscillatory motion.

## Q: What is the difference between an open and a closed kinematic chain?

A: An open kinematic chain is one where the last link of the chain is free to move, whereas in a closed kinematic chain, the last link is fixed.

## Q: What is meant by the term degree of freedom?

A: Degree of freedom is the number of independent parameters required to describe the motion of a system.

## Q: Explain the term ‘instant center of rotation’.

A: Instant center of rotation is the point on a rigid body that has zero velocity at a specific instant of time during motion.

## Q: What is a slider-crank mechanism?

A: A slider-crank mechanism is a type of mechanism that converts rotary motion into reciprocating motion, or vice versa. It consists of a crank that rotates and a slider that moves in a straight line.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘inversion of mechanisms’?

A: Inversion of mechanisms refers to the process of obtaining new mechanisms by interchanging the fixed and moving links of a kinematic chain.

## Q: Define gear train.

A: A gear train is a mechanism that transmits rotational motion and torque from one shaft to another by means of interlocking gears.

## Q: What is the difference between a simple and a compound gear train?

A: In a simple gear train, only two gears are used to transmit motion and torque, whereas in a compound gear train, more than two gears are used.

## Q: Define involute profile.

A: An involute profile is a curve traced by a point on a taut string that is unwound from a circle.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘backlash’ in a gear train?

A: Backlash is the clearance or play between the teeth of gears in a gear train.

## Q: Define backlash error.

A: Backlash error is the difference between the theoretical and actual motion of a gear train due to the clearance or play between the teeth of gears.

## Q: What is a differential gear?

A: A differential gear is a mechanism used in automobiles to allow the wheels to rotate at different speeds while maintaining equal torque.

A: Mechanical advantage is the ratio of the output force to the input force in a machine.

## Q: What is the difference between efficiency and effectiveness?

A: Efficiency is the ratio of output power to input power in a machine, whereas effectiveness is the ability of a machine to perform its intended task.

## Q: What is a flywheel?

A: A flywheel is a mechanical device used to store energy and maintain a constant speed or torque in a rotating system.

## Q: Define critical speed.

A: Critical speed is the speed at which a rotating shaft experiences resonance and vibrates violently due to natural frequencies.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘overhung load’?

A: Overhung load is the load that is applied at the end of a shaft that is not supported by a bearing or other mechanism.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘governor’?

A: A governor is a device used to regulate the speed of a machine or engine by controlling the input power or energy.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘balancing’ in a rotating system?

A: Balancing is the process of distributing the mass of a rotating system in such a way that the forces and moments acting on it are balanced and minimized.

## Q: Define gear ratio.

A: Gear ratio is the ratio of the number of teeth on the output gear to the number of teeth on the input gear in a gear train.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gear pitch’?

A: Gear pitch is the distance between the corresponding points on adjacent gear teeth, usually measured along the pitch circle.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘rolling contact’?

A: Rolling contact is the type of contact that occurs between two surfaces that roll or slide over each other, as opposed to sliding or static contact.

## Q: Define eccentricity in a cam.

A: Eccentricity is the distance between the center of rotation of a cam and the center of the follower or the axis of rotation of the follower.

## Q: What is a Geneva mechanism?

A: A Geneva mechanism is a type of intermittent motion mechanism that is used to convert continuous rotary motion into intermittent rotary motion.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘force analysis’?

A: Force analysis is the process of analyzing the forces and moments acting on a mechanism or machine to determine their effect on its motion, stability, and performance.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic pair’?

A: Kinematic pair is a pair of links or elements in a mechanism that have relative motion with respect to each other.

## Q: What is the difference between a belt drive and a chain drive?

A: A belt drive uses a flexible belt to transmit motion and torque, whereas a chain drive uses a chain made up of links to transmit motion and torque.

## Q: What is the difference between a synchronous and an asynchronous motor?

A: A synchronous motor operates at a constant speed that is synchronized with the frequency of the power supply, whereas an asynchronous motor operates at a speed slightly less than the synchronous speed.

## Q: Define hysteresis.

A: Hysteresis is the lagging of the magnetic field in a material with respect to the external magnetic field that is causing it.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘governor’?

A: A governor is a mechanical device used to regulate the speed of an engine by controlling the amount of fuel or steam that is supplied to it.

## Q: Define balancing of rotating masses.

A: Balancing of rotating masses is the process of adding counterweights to a rotating system to reduce or eliminate vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

## Q: What is the difference between static and dynamic balancing?

A: Static balancing involves balancing a system at rest, whereas dynamic balancing involves balancing a system while it is in motion.

## Q: Define critical damping.

A: Critical damping is the damping level that provides the fastest return to equilibrium without any overshoot.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinetic energy’?

A: Kinetic energy is the energy that an object possesses due to its motion.

## Q: Define impulse and momentum.

A: Impulse is the product of force and time, whereas momentum is the product of mass and velocity.

## Q: Define gyroscope.

A: A gyroscope is a device that is used to measure or maintain orientation and angular velocity.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘precession’ in a gyroscope?

A: Precession is the phenomenon where the axis of rotation of a gyroscope rotates when a torque is applied perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘center of gravity’?

A: The center of gravity is the point on a body where the weight of the body is considered to be concentrated.

## Q: What is the difference between stability and instability in a system?

A: Stability refers to the ability of a system to return to its original position or state after a disturbance, whereas instability refers to the tendency of a system to move away from its original position or state.

## Q: Define simple harmonic motion.

A: Simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion where the restoring force is proportional to the displacement and is directed towards the equilibrium position.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘natural frequency’?

A: Natural frequency is the frequency at which a system vibrates when it is disturbed from its equilibrium position.

## Q: What is the difference between a free vibration and a forced vibration?

A: A free vibration is the vibration of a system without any external forces acting on it, whereas a forced vibration is the vibration of a system due to the application of external forces.

## Q: Define resonance.

A: Resonance is the phenomenon where a system oscillates at its natural frequency when it is subjected to an external force at that same frequency.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘creep’ in a machine?

A: Creep is the slow and continuous deformation of a material under a constant load over time.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gyroscopic couple’?

A: A gyroscopic couple is a torque that is produced by a gyroscope due to its precession and its resistance to change in orientation.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘precession’?

A: Precession is the motion of a spinning body in which the axis of rotation itself rotates around another axis.

## Q: What is a universal joint?

A: A universal joint is a mechanism used to transmit rotary motion between two shafts that are not parallel and that have some degree of misalignment.

## Q: Define the term ‘torsional vibration’.

A: Torsional vibration is a type of vibration that occurs in a rotating system due to the twisting and untwisting of the shaft.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘governing’ in engines?

A: Governing is the process of controlling the speed and output of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel or steam that is supplied to it.

## Q: What is the difference between a spur gear and a bevel gear?

A: A spur gear has teeth that are parallel to the axis of rotation, whereas a bevel gear has teeth that are angled and can transmit motion between shafts that are not parallel.

## Q: What is the difference between a rack and a pinion?

A: A rack is a straight toothed bar, whereas a pinion is a gear that engages with the rack and can transmit motion between linear and rotary motion.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘rolling friction’?

A: Rolling friction is the resistance that a rolling object experiences due to the deformation and recovery of its contact surface with the ground or other surface.

## Q: Define the term ‘torque’.

A: Torque is the rotational force that causes an object to rotate around an axis.

## Q: Define the term ‘slip’ in a belt drive.

A: Slip is the difference between the linear speed of the belt and the linear speed of the pulley that it is in contact with.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘creep’ in a belt drive?

A: Creep is the tendency of a belt to gradually move along the pulley due to uneven tension or slipping.

## Q: Define the term ‘vibration’.

A: Vibration is the oscillatory motion of a mechanical system that is caused by disturbances or forces acting on it.

## Q: What is the difference between a static and a dynamic load?

A: A static load is a load that does not change or move, whereas a dynamic load is a load that changes or moves over time.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gear ratio’?

A: Gear ratio is the ratio of the number of teeth on the output gear to the number of teeth on the input gear in a gear train.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘throw’ in a crankshaft?

A: Throw is the distance between the center of the crankshaft and the center of the crankpin in a reciprocating engine.

## Q: Define the term ‘buckling’.

A: Buckling is the sudden failure of a slender structure due to compressive loads that cause it to bend or deform.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘safety factor’?

A: Safety factor is the ratio of the maximum stress that a material can withstand to the actual stress that is applied to it. It is used to ensure that a component or structure is designed to be safe and reliable.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘centrifugal force’?

A: Centrifugal force is a fictitious force that appears to act on a body moving in a circular path, directed away from the center of the circle.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘moment of inertia’?

A: Moment of inertia is a measure of an object’s resistance to changes in its rotational motion.

## Q: What is a flywheel?

A: A flywheel is a mechanical device used to store energy in the form of rotational motion, which can then be used to smooth out fluctuations in the output of an engine or other machine.

## Q: What is a clutch?

A: A clutch is a mechanism used to engage and disengage the transmission of power between two rotating shafts.

## Q: What is a brake?

A: A brake is a mechanical device used to slow down or stop the motion of a rotating or moving object by applying friction or other resistance to it.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gear train’?

A: Gear train is a set of gears that transmit power and motion between two or more rotating shafts.

## Q: What is a crank and connecting rod mechanism?

A: A crank and connecting rod mechanism is a mechanical device used to convert linear motion into rotational motion, or vice versa.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘cam follower’?

A: A cam follower is a component that rides on the surface of a cam and is used to transmit motion to another mechanism.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘hertzian contact stress’?

A: Hertzian contact stress is the stress that occurs at the point of contact between two surfaces under load, due to the elastic deformation of the material.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘shear stress’?

A: Shear stress is the stress that occurs when a force is applied parallel to an area, causing the material to deform and slide along the plane of the area.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gear backlash’?

A: Gear backlash is the amount of free play between the teeth of two gears in a gear train, which can affect the accuracy and smoothness of the transmission.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘eccentricity’?

A: Eccentricity is the distance between the center of an object and its axis of rotation, which can affect its stability and balance.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘bearing’?

A: A bearing is a component used to reduce friction between two moving parts by providing a smooth surface or interface for them to move against each other.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘torsion’?

A: Torsion is the twisting of an object around its longitudinal axis, which can cause it to deform or fail under high loads.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘critical speed’?

A: Critical speed is the rotational speed at which the natural frequency of a mechanical system matches the frequency of the external excitation, causing resonance and potentially catastrophic failure.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematics’?

A: Kinematics is the study of motion without regard to the forces or torques that cause it, focusing on the position, velocity, and acceleration of objects.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘dynamics’?

A: Dynamics is the study of motion in relation to the forces or torques that cause it, focusing on the resultant motion, forces, and energy involved in a mechanical system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘efficiency’ in a machine?

A: Efficiency is the ratio of the output power or work of a machine to the input power or work, representing how well the machine converts input energy into useful output energy.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘statics’?

A: Statics is the study of objects or systems that are in a state of equilibrium, meaning they are not accelerating or rotating, and are subject to balanced forces and torques.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘velocity ratio’?

A: Velocity ratio is the ratio of the output velocity to the input velocity in a machine, representing the gain or loss of speed in the transmission.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘overrunning clutch’?

A: An overrunning clutch is a type of clutch that allows one shaft to rotate freely in one direction while being engaged with another shaft in the opposite direction.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinetic energy’?

A: Kinetic energy is the energy of motion possessed by an object due to its mass and velocity.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘potential energy’?

A: Potential energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its position or configuration in a field of force, such as gravity.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘governor’?

A: A governor is a device used to regulate the speed of an engine or other machine by controlling the supply of fuel or energy to the system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘centrifugal governor’?

A: A centrifugal governor is a type of governor that uses the centrifugal force generated by rotating masses to control the speed of an engine or other machine.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘inertia force’?

A: Inertia force is the force that opposes a change in the motion of an object due to its mass and acceleration.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘frictional force’?

A: Frictional force is the force that opposes motion or attempted motion between two surfaces in contact, due to the roughness and adhesion of the surfaces.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘coupling’?

A: A coupling is a mechanical device used to connect two rotating shafts together, allowing them to transmit power and motion between them.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gear train’?

A: A gear train is a mechanism consisting of two or more gears that transmit power and motion between rotating shafts, often used to increase or decrease the speed or torque of a system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘inversion of mechanism’?

A: Inversion of mechanism is the process of changing the relative positions of the input and output links of a mechanism, while maintaining the same function or motion.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘flywheel’?

A: A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device used to store and release energy, often used to smooth out fluctuations in power or torque in a system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘cam’?

A: A cam is a rotating or sliding mechanical device used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating or oscillating motion, or to control the timing and duration of the motion.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘follower’ in a cam mechanism?

A: A follower is a component in a cam mechanism that is in contact with the cam surface and undergoes reciprocating or oscillating motion due to the motion of the cam.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘pressure angle’ in gear design?

A: Pressure angle is the angle between the tangent to the pitch circle of a gear and the direction of the force between the teeth, which affects the load distribution and strength of the gear teeth.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘backlash angle’ in gear design?

A: Backlash angle is the angle between the plane of rotation of a gear and the plane perpendicular to the tooth axis, which affects the clearance and meshing behavior of the gear teeth.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘degree of freedom’ in a mechanism?

A: Degree of freedom is the number of independent variables required to specify the motion of a mechanism, representing the number of ways in which the mechanism can move or be positioned.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘instant center of rotation’?

A: Instant center of rotation is the point at which two or more links in a mechanism appear to rotate relative to each other, representing the virtual pivot point of the motion.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘polar moment of inertia’?

A: Polar moment of inertia is the resistance of a rotating object to torsional deformation, representing the distribution of mass around the rotational axis.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gyroscopic effect’?

A: Gyroscopic effect is the tendency of a rotating object to maintain its orientation and resist external forces that would change its direction or plane of rotation.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘torsional vibration’?

A: Torsional vibration is the vibration that occurs in a rotating shaft due to the twisting or oscillation of the shaft caused by uneven torque or unbalanced forces.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘harmonic motion’?

A: Harmonic motion is the periodic motion that occurs when the restoring force acting on an object is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium, resulting in sinusoidal oscillation.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘natural frequency’?

A: Natural frequency is the frequency at which a mechanical system oscillates when disturbed from its equilibrium position without any external forces or damping.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘damping’ in mechanical systems?

A: Damping is the dissipation of energy in a mechanical system, often achieved through the use of friction, to reduce or prevent oscillations or vibrations.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘critical speed’ in rotating shafts?

A: Critical speed is the rotational speed at which a shaft experiences resonance due to its natural frequency, resulting in excessive vibration and potential failure.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic pair’?

A: Kinematic pair is a connection between two bodies that allows them to move relative to each other with a specific degree of freedom, usually involving a fixed or sliding contact between the surfaces.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘mechanical advantage’?

A: Mechanical advantage is the ratio of the output force or torque of a mechanism to the input force or torque required to operate it, indicating the amplification of force or reduction of effort achieved by the mechanism.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘crank and slider mechanism’?

A: Crank and slider mechanism is a simple mechanism consisting of a rotating crank and a sliding block or slider connected by a connecting rod, often used to convert rotary motion into reciprocating or oscillating motion.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic chain’?

A: Kinematic chain is a sequence of interconnected kinematic pairs that transmit motion and power between input and output elements, forming a complete mechanism.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘planetary gear system’?

A: Planetary gear system is a gear train consisting of a central sun gear, an outer ring gear, and one or more planet gears that rotate around the sun gear and mesh with the ring gear, allowing for high gear ratios and compact design.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘coupling’ in mechanical systems?

A: Coupling is a device used to connect two shafts or rotating elements to transmit power and motion between them, often used to compensate for misalignments or to allow for disconnection and maintenance.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinetics’ in mechanics?

A: Kinetics is the study of the motion of objects and systems under the influence of forces and torques, including the analysis of the acceleration, velocity, and momentum of the objects.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘statics’ in mechanics?

A: Statics is the study of the equilibrium and stability of objects and systems under the influence of forces and torques, including the analysis of the balance of forces and moments acting on the objects.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘cam and follower mechanism’?

A: Cam and follower mechanism is a mechanical system consisting of a rotating cam and a follower that rides on the cam surface, producing a specific motion or force depending on the shape of the cam.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘governor’ in mechanical systems?

A: Governor is a device used to regulate the speed of an engine or machine by adjusting the flow of fuel or energy, usually consisting of a rotating flywheel or weights that respond to changes in speed.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘degree of freedom’ in mechanical systems?

A: Degree of freedom is the number of independent motions or parameters that a mechanical system can exhibit, indicating the complexity and flexibility of the system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘dead center’ in crankshaft rotation?

A: Dead center is the position in the crankshaft rotation where the piston is at its highest or lowest point of travel, resulting in zero velocity and often causing difficulties in starting or operating the engine.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic inversion’ in mechanical systems?

A: Kinematic inversion is the process of rearranging the kinematic pairs and links of a mechanism to achieve a different output or motion, while maintaining the same input.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘eccentricity’ in mechanical systems?

A: Eccentricity is the distance between the geometric center and the center of rotation of a rotating object, often causing changes in the motion or force produced by the object.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘velocity ratio’ in mechanical systems?

A: Velocity ratio is the ratio of the velocity of the output element to the velocity of the input element in a mechanical system, indicating the amplification or reduction of motion achieved by the system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic synthesis’ in mechanical systems?

A: Kinematic synthesis is the process of designing a mechanism to achieve a specific motion or output, usually by manipulating the geometry and parameters of the kinematic pairs and links.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘linkage’ in mechanical systems?

A: Linkage is a collection of kinematic pairs and links connected in a specific way to transmit motion and force between input and output elements, often used in machines and mechanisms.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘flywheel’ in mechanical systems?

A: Flywheel is a heavy rotating wheel used to store energy and maintain a smooth and steady output from a machine or engine, often used to reduce fluctuations and vibrations.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gear train’ in mechanical systems?

A: Gear train is a series of gears and shafts arranged to transmit motion and power between input and output elements, often used to achieve specific speed and torque ratios.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘slider-crank mechanism’ in mechanical systems?

A: Slider-crank mechanism is a common mechanism consisting of a sliding block (slider), a rotating crank, and a connecting rod that transmits the motion and force between them, often used in engines and pumps.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘torque’ in mechanical systems?

A: Torque is a measure of the twisting force applied to a rotating object, often measured in units of Newton-meters (Nm) or pound-feet (lb-ft), and is a key parameter in the operation of engines and machines.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic diagram’ in mechanical systems?

A: Kinematic diagram is a schematic representation of a mechanism or machine, showing the arrangement and movement of the links and kinematic pairs, and used for analysis and design.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic analysis’ in mechanical systems?

A: Kinematic analysis is the process of analyzing the motion and forces in a mechanical system, often using mathematical and graphical techniques to determine the velocity, acceleration, and force relationships between the components.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic coefficient of friction’ in mechanical systems?

A: Kinematic coefficient of friction is a measure of the frictional resistance between two surfaces in relative motion, and is used to determine the force required to move an object or the energy lost due to friction.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic chain’ in mechanical systems?

A: Kinematic chain is a sequence of links and joints connected to form a closed or open loop, and used to transmit motion and force between input and output elements.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘instant center of rotation’ in mechanical systems?

A: Instant center of rotation is the point in a mechanism or machine where the velocity of two connected links is zero, indicating the location of the virtual pivot point or center of rotation.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘pitch circle diameter’ in mechanical systems?

A: Pitch circle diameter is the diameter of the imaginary circle passing through the centers of the teeth on a gear, and is used to determine the gear ratio and other parameters.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘coupler curve’ in mechanical systems?

A: Coupler curve is the path traced by a point on the coupler link of a four-bar mechanism, and is used to analyze and design the motion of the mechanism.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘gear ratio’ in mechanical systems?

A: Gear ratio is the ratio of the number of teeth on the output gear to the number of teeth on the input gear, and is used to determine the speed and torque relationship between input and output elements.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘limiting angle of crank rotation’ in mechanical systems?

A: Limiting angle of crank rotation is the maximum or minimum angle of rotation of the crankshaft or other rotating element, beyond which the motion or force produced by the mechanism may become unstable or unreliable.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘overconstrained mechanism’ in mechanical systems?

A: Overconstrained mechanism is a mechanical system with more kinematic constraints than necessary for the desired motion or output, often resulting in interference or other problems.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘kinematic redundancy’ in mechanical systems?

A: Kinematic redundancy is the situation where a mechanical system has more degrees of freedom than required to achieve the desired motion or output, and is often used to increase the reliability and flexibility of the system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘degree of freedom’ in mechanical systems?

A: Degree of freedom is the number of independent ways in which a mechanism or machine can move or be positioned, and is determined by the number of joints and constraints in the system.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘Grashof’s law’ in mechanical systems?

A: Grashof’s law is a theorem in kinematics that states that for a four-bar mechanism to achieve continuous rotation, the sum of the shortest and longest link lengths must be less than or equal to the sum of the other two link lengths.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘input link’ in mechanical systems?

A: Input link is the link or component of a mechanism or machine that is directly driven or controlled by an external force or power source, and is often used to transmit motion and force to other components.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘output link’ in mechanical systems?

A: Output link is the link or component of a mechanism or machine that is directly driven by the input link or other components, and is often used to produce the desired motion or output.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘inversion’ in mechanical systems?

A: Inversion is the process of reconfiguring a mechanism or machine by changing the arrangement or order of the links and joints, and is often used to analyze or design different types of motion or output.

## Q: What is meant by the term ‘mechanical advantage’ in mechanical systems?

A: Mechanical advantage is the ratio of the output force or torque produced by a machine or mechanism to the input force or torque applied to it, and is used to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the system.