MACHINE DESIGN VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

MACHINE DESIGN VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

I can provide you with some sample questions and answers that may be asked in a machine design viva, but please note that specific questions may vary depending on the course and instructor.

Q: What is machine design?

A: Machine design is the process of designing a machine or mechanical system to meet a specific set of requirements or specifications.

Q: What are the steps involved in machine design?

A: The steps involved in machine design typically include problem definition, concept generation, analysis and design, prototype development, testing and validation, and production.

Q: What is the purpose of machine design?

A: The purpose of machine design is to create a machine or mechanical system that meets a specific set of requirements or specifications, and that is safe, reliable, and efficient.

Q: What are some factors that must be considered during the machine design process?

A: Some factors that must be considered during the machine design process include the operating environment, load requirements, safety considerations, reliability and maintainability, and cost.

Q: What are some common materials used in machine design?

A: Some common materials used in machine design include metals such as steel and aluminum, plastics, composites, and ceramics.

Q: What is stress analysis in machine design?

A: Stress analysis is the process of evaluating the stresses and strains that a machine or mechanical component will experience during operation, and designing the component to withstand these forces.

Q: What is the difference between static and dynamic loading in machine design?

A: Static loading refers to forces that are applied to a machine or mechanical component that do not change over time, while dynamic loading refers to forces that vary over time, such as those caused by vibration or impact.

Q: What is the importance of tolerances in machine design?

A: Tolerances are important in machine design because they ensure that the parts of a machine fit together properly, and that the machine functions as intended. Tolerances must be designed to ensure that parts fit together without interference, but also without excessive clearances that could lead to reduced performance or premature failure.

Q: What is fatigue failure in machine design?

A: Fatigue failure is a type of failure that occurs when a machine or mechanical component fails after repeated cyclic loading, even though the maximum stress is below the yield strength of the material. Fatigue failure can be prevented through proper material selection, design, and testing.

Q: What is the purpose of FMEA in machine design?

A: FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) is a method of identifying and prioritizing potential failure modes in a machine or mechanical system, and developing strategies to mitigate or eliminate these failures. FMEA is used to improve the reliability and safety of the machine or system.

Q: What is the difference between static and dynamic analysis in machine design?

A: Static analysis is concerned with the study of loads and their effects on a system while the system is at rest, while dynamic analysis is concerned with the study of the response of a system to loads that change with time, such as those caused by vibration or impact.

Q: What is the role of CAD in machine design?

A: Computer-aided design (CAD) is a software tool that is commonly used in machine design to create detailed 2D or 3D models of machine components and assemblies. CAD allows designers to test and evaluate different design concepts, and to make modifications quickly and easily.

Q: What is the difference between a bolt and a screw?

A: A bolt is typically used with a nut to fasten two or more components together, while a screw is typically used to fasten a component to another surface, such as a wall or ceiling.

Q: What are some common types of bearings used in machine design?

A: Some common types of bearings used in machine design include ball bearings, roller bearings, and plain bearings.

Q: What is the role of lubrication in machine design?

A: Lubrication is used in machine design to reduce friction and wear between moving parts, and to dissipate heat generated by friction. Proper lubrication is essential for the reliable and efficient operation of a machine.

Q: What is the difference between a gear and a pulley?

A: A gear is a component that transmits motion and power between two rotating shafts, while a pulley is a component that transmits motion and power between a rotating shaft and a belt or cable.

Q: What is the difference between a shaft and an axle?

A: A shaft is a rotating component that transmits motion and power between two components, while an axle is a stationary component that supports a rotating wheel or other component.

Q: What is the difference between static and dynamic balancing?

A: Static balancing is concerned with the balance of a component when it is stationary, while dynamic balancing is concerned with the balance of a component when it is in motion.

Q: What is the difference between fatigue life and endurance limit?

A: Fatigue life is the number of cycles of loading that a component can withstand before failure, while endurance limit is the maximum stress that a component can withstand without failure, even when subjected to an infinite number of cycles of loading.

Q: What is the difference between a welding joint and a bolted joint?

A: A welding joint is a permanent joint created by melting and fusing two metal parts together, while a bolted joint is a removable joint created by fastening two parts together with bolts and nuts.

Q: What is the difference between a single acting and double acting cylinder?

A: A single acting cylinder has only one port that is used to extend or retract the piston, while a double acting cylinder has two ports that are used to extend and retract the piston.

Q: What is the difference between a belt drive and a chain drive?

A: A belt drive uses a belt to transmit motion and power between two rotating components, while a chain drive uses a chain to transmit motion and power.

Q: What is the difference between a linear and a rotary actuator?

A: A linear actuator is used to produce linear motion, while a rotary actuator is used to produce rotary motion.

Q: What is the purpose of a coupler in machine design?

A: A coupler is used to connect two shafts together, allowing them to transmit motion and power between them.

Q: What is the difference between a spring and a shock absorber?

A: A spring is used to store and release energy, while a shock absorber is used to dampen the motion of a component and dissipate energy.

Q: What is the difference between a pressure vessel and a storage tank?

A: A pressure vessel is designed to contain pressurized gases or liquids, while a storage tank is designed to store large volumes of gases or liquids at atmospheric pressure.

Q: What is the difference between a cast and a forged component?

A: A cast component is made by pouring molten metal into a mold and allowing it to solidify, while a forged component is made by shaping a piece of metal under pressure using a forging press or hammer.

Q: What is the purpose of a bearing preload in machine design?

A: Bearing preload is used to eliminate clearance between the rolling elements and the raceway of a bearing, ensuring that the bearing operates with minimal play and maximum stiffness.

Q: What is the purpose of a cam in machine design?

A: A cam is used to convert rotary motion into linear or oscillatory motion, or vice versa. Cams are often used in machines that require precise control over the motion of their components.

Q: What is the purpose of a gear ratio in machine design?

A: The gear ratio is used to control the speed and torque of a machine. A higher gear ratio will provide more torque and lower speed, while a lower gear ratio will provide higher speed and lower torque.

Q: What is the difference between a closed loop and an open loop control system?

A: A closed loop control system uses feedback to adjust the output of the system based on the measured output, while an open loop control system does not use feedback and relies solely on the input signal.

Q: What is the difference between a machine tool and a machine component?

A: A machine tool is a machine that is used to shape or form materials into specific shapes or forms, while a machine component is a part of a machine that performs a specific function.

Q: What is the difference between a rigid and a flexible coupling?

A: A rigid coupling is used to connect two shafts together in a fixed manner, while a flexible coupling allows for some misalignment and flexibility in the connection between two shafts.

Q: What is the difference between a rack and a pinion?

A: A rack is a linear component with teeth that meshes with a pinion, which is a rotary component with teeth. The rack and pinion system is often used in machines that require precise linear motion control.

Q: What is the purpose of a flywheel in machine design?

A: A flywheel is used to store energy in a machine and to smooth out any variations in the input or output of the machine. Flywheels are often used in machines that require a constant output speed, such as engines or generators.

Q: What is the difference between a linear bearing and a bushing?

A: A linear bearing is a component that allows for linear motion along a shaft or rail, while a bushing is a component that provides support and reduces friction between two rotating or sliding components.

Q: What is the purpose of a limit switch in machine design?

A: A limit switch is used to control the motion of a machine by detecting the presence or absence of an object in its path. When the object reaches the limit switch, it triggers the switch to stop or reverse the motion of the machine.

Q: What is the difference between a pump and a compressor?

A: A pump is used to move liquids or gases from one place to another, while a compressor is used to increase the pressure of a gas or air.

Q: What is the purpose of a clutch in machine design?

A: A clutch is used to disengage and engage the power transmission between two rotating components, allowing the operator to control the motion of the machine.

Q: What is the difference between a linear motor and a rotary motor?

A: A linear motor produces linear motion, while a rotary motor produces rotary motion. Both types of motors can be used in machine design to provide motion control.

Q: What is the purpose of a solenoid in machine design?

A: A solenoid is an electromagnetic device that is used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Solenoids are often used in machines to control valves, switches, and other mechanical components.

Q: What is the difference between a worm gear and a spur gear?

A: A worm gear is a type of gear that uses a screw-like worm to transmit motion and power to a wheel or gear. A spur gear is a cylindrical gear with straight teeth that mesh with another gear to transmit motion and power.

Q: What is the purpose of a pressure relief valve in machine design?

A: A pressure relief valve is used to protect a machine from overpressure by opening and releasing fluid or gas when the pressure exceeds a set point. This helps to prevent damage to the machine and ensure safe operation.

Q: What is the difference between a hydraulic and a pneumatic system?

A: A hydraulic system uses a fluid, typically oil, to transmit power, while a pneumatic system uses compressed air to transmit power. Both systems can be used in machine design to control motion and apply force.

Q: What is the purpose of a load cell in machine design?

A: A load cell is a device that is used to measure force or weight. Load cells are often used in machines to monitor the weight or force applied to a component, such as a conveyor belt or a lifting mechanism.

Q: What is the difference between a stepper motor and a servo motor?

A: A stepper motor moves in discrete steps and is typically used in machines that require precise positioning, while a servo motor moves continuously and is typically used in machines that require precise speed control and torque.

Q: What is the purpose of a sensor in machine design?

A: A sensor is a device that is used to detect changes in the environment, such as temperature, pressure, or light. Sensors are often used in machines to monitor and control their operation.

Q: What is the difference between a synchronous and an asynchronous motor?

A: A synchronous motor operates at a fixed speed that is synchronized with the frequency of the power source, while an asynchronous motor operates at a variable speed that is not synchronized with the power source. Both types of motors can be used in machine design for different applications.

Q: What is the purpose of a conveyor belt in machine design?

A: A conveyor belt is used to transport materials from one location to another in a machine. Conveyor belts can be used in a variety of applications, such as manufacturing, mining, and transportation.

Q: What is the difference between a power screw and a lead screw?

A: A power screw is used to transmit power between two rotating components, while a lead screw is used to convert rotary motion into linear motion. Both types of screws can be used in machine design for different applications.

Q: What is the purpose of a gearbox in machine design?

A: A gearbox is used to adjust the speed and torque of a machine by changing the gear ratio between the input and output shafts. Gearboxes are often used in machines that require a range of speeds and torque values.

Q: What is the difference between a ball screw and a lead screw?

A: A ball screw is a type of power screw that uses ball bearings to reduce friction and increase efficiency, while a lead screw is a type of screw that is used to convert rotary motion into linear motion. Both types of screws can be used in machine design for different applications.

Q: What is the purpose of a load balancer in machine design?

A: A load balancer is used to distribute the load between multiple components in a machine, such as motors, pumps, or fans. This helps to prevent overload and prolong the life of the machine.

Q: What is the difference between a centrifugal and a positive displacement pump?

A: A centrifugal pump uses a rotating impeller to move fluid, while a positive displacement pump uses a mechanism to trap and move fluid. Both types of pumps can be used in machine design for different applications.

Q: What is the purpose of a pressure gauge in machine design?

A: A pressure gauge is used to measure the pressure of fluid or gas in a machine. Pressure gauges are often used in machines to monitor and control their operation.

Q: What is the difference between a thermocouple and a RTD sensor?

A: A thermocouple is a type of temperature sensor that uses two dissimilar metals to generate a voltage proportional to temperature, while a RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) sensor is a type of temperature sensor that measures the resistance of a metal wire as a function of temperature. Both types of sensors can be used in machine design for temperature measurement.

Q: What is the purpose of a cam in machine design?

A: A cam is a mechanical component that is used to convert rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa. Cams are often used in machines that require precise motion control, such as engines or pumps.

Q: What is the difference between a bearing and a bushing?

A: A bearing is a mechanical component that is used to reduce friction between two moving parts, while a bushing is a mechanical component that is used to support and align a shaft. Both bearings and bushings can be used in machine design for different applications.

Q: What is the purpose of a heat exchanger in machine design?

A: A heat exchanger is used to transfer heat from one fluid to another fluid without mixing them. Heat exchangers are often used in machines that require temperature control, such as engines or industrial processes.

Q: What is the difference between a synchronous and an asynchronous communication protocol?

A: A synchronous communication protocol requires both the sender and the receiver to be synchronized in time, while an asynchronous communication protocol does not require synchronization. Both types of protocols can be used in machine design for data transmission.

Q: What is the purpose of a safety factor in machine design?

A: A safety factor is used to account for uncertainties and potential failures in a machine’s design or operation. By incorporating a safety factor, engineers ensure that the machine can withstand unexpected stresses or loads without failing catastrophically.

Q: What is the difference between a belt drive and a chain drive?

A: A belt drive uses a belt to transmit power between two components, while a chain drive uses a chain to transmit power. Both types of drives can be used in machine design for power transmission, but belt drives are typically used for lower power applications and chain drives are used for higher power applications.

Q: What is the purpose of a feedback control system in machine design?

A: A feedback control system is used to regulate and control the output of a machine by measuring the output and adjusting the input accordingly. Feedback control systems are often used in machines that require precise control, such as robots or industrial processes.

Q: What is the difference between a linear actuator and a rotary actuator?

A: A linear actuator is a mechanical component that is used to convert rotary motion into linear motion or vice versa, while a rotary actuator is a mechanical component that is used to rotate an object or a shaft. Both types of actuators can be used in machine design for different applications.

Q: What is the purpose of a governor in machine design?

A: A governor is used to regulate the speed of a machine by controlling the input to the machine. Governors are often used in machines that require constant speed, such as engines or generators.

Q: What is the difference between a single-phase and a three-phase electrical system?

A: A single-phase electrical system uses a single alternating current (AC) voltage, while a three-phase electrical system uses three AC voltages that are out of phase with each other. Three-phase electrical systems are often used in machines that require higher power and smoother operation.

Q: What is the purpose of a filter in machine design?

A: A filter is used to remove unwanted particles or noise from a fluid or gas in a machine. Filters are often used in machines that require clean fluids or gases, such as hydraulic systems or air conditioning systems.

Q: What is the difference between a closed-loop and an open-loop control system?

A: A closed-loop control system uses feedback from the output to adjust the input and regulate the output, while an open-loop control system does not use feedback and relies solely on the input. Closed-loop control systems are often used in machines that require precise control, while open-loop control systems are used in simpler machines.

Q: What is the purpose of a hydraulic system in machine design?

A: A hydraulic system is used to transmit power using pressurized fluids. Hydraulic systems are often used in machines that require high power and precision, such as heavy equipment or industrial machinery.

Q: What is the difference between a weld and a braze joint?

A: A weld joint is created by melting the two components together, while a braze joint is created by heating the two components and using a filler material to join them. Both types of joints can be used in machine design for joining metal components, but weld joints are typically used for stronger connections and braze joints are used for lighter-duty applications.



MACHINE DESIGN VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS



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