Metal Cutting: Viva/ Interview Questions and Answers

Viva Questions and Answers on Metal Cutting

Here are some possible viva questions and answers on metal cutting:

What is metal cutting?

Metal cutting is the process of removing material from a workpiece in the form of chips to obtain a desired shape and size. The process can be performed by various cutting tools, such as drills, end mills, and saws, with or without the application of heat.

What are the main objectives of metal cutting?

The main objectives of metal cutting are to produce a workpiece with the required shape, size, and surface finish, to minimize cutting time and cost, to achieve high accuracy and consistency, and to reduce the stress on the cutting tool and the workpiece.

What are the different types of metal cutting operations?

The different types of metal cutting operations include turning, drilling, milling, grinding, and sawing. Each operation uses a specific cutting tool and motion to achieve a desired result.

What is the role of cutting speed in metal cutting?

The cutting speed is the speed of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece and is a key factor in metal cutting. It determines the cutting force, temperature, and chip size, and affects the tool life, surface finish, and accuracy of the workpiece.

What is the relationship between cutting speed and tool life?

In general, increasing the cutting speed leads to a decrease in tool life due to increased cutting temperature and wear on the cutting tool. On the other hand, reducing the cutting speed may prolong the tool life, but it also increases the cutting time and reduces productivity. The optimal cutting speed depends on the material properties and the cutting tool.

What are the factors that affect the cutting force in metal cutting?

The cutting force in metal cutting is influenced by several factors, such as the material properties of the workpiece, the geometry of the cutting tool, the cutting speed, the feed rate, the tool clearance, and the presence of coolant.

What is the role of coolant in metal cutting?

The coolant in metal cutting is a fluid, such as oil or water, that is applied to the cutting zone to reduce friction, heat, and wear on the cutting tool and the workpiece. It also helps to evacuate the chips and improve the surface finish of the workpiece.

What is the difference between chip formation and chip breaking in metal cutting?

Chip formation is the process of generating chips from the workpiece during metal cutting, while chip breaking is the process of separating the chips into smaller pieces and removing them from the cutting zone. Chip formation and chip breaking are interrelated and affect the cutting force, temperature, and surface finish of the workpiece.

What is the difference between orthogonal and oblique cutting in metal cutting?

Orthogonal cutting is a cutting process in which the cutting edge is perpendicular to the surface of the workpiece, while oblique cutting is a cutting process in which the cutting edge is inclined at an angle to the surface of the workpiece. The cutting direction affects the cutting force, temperature, and chip formation in metal cutting.

What is the difference between rough and finish cutting in metal cutting?

Rough cutting is a cutting process in which a large amount of material is removed quickly to generate a rough shape, while finish cutting is a cutting process in which a small amount of material is removed precisely to achieve a fine surface finish and dimensional accuracy. The cutting conditions, such as cutting speed and feed rate, are different for rough and finish cutting.

What is the difference between dry and wet cutting in metal cutting?

Dry cutting is a cutting process in which no coolant is used, while wet cutting is a cutting process in which a coolant, such as oil or water, is applied to the cutting zone. The use of coolant affects the cutting temperature, force, and surface finish in metal cutting.

What is the difference between single point and multi-point cutting in metal cutting?

Single point cutting is a cutting process in which only one cutting edge is used, while multi-point cutting is a cutting process in which multiple cutting edges are used simultaneously. The number of cutting edges affects the cutting force, temperature, and surface finish in metal cutting.

What is the difference between hard and soft cutting in metal cutting?

Hard cutting is a cutting process in which a high cutting speed and force are used to cut through hard materials, while soft cutting is a cutting process in which a low cutting speed and force are used to cut through soft materials. The cutting conditions, such as cutting speed and feed rate, are different for hard and soft cutting.

What is the difference between conventional and high-speed cutting in metal cutting?

Conventional cutting is a cutting process in which a low cutting speed is used, while high-speed cutting is a cutting process in which a high cutting speed is used. The cutting speed affects the cutting temperature, force, and tool life in metal cutting.

What is the difference between up and down milling in metal cutting?

Up milling is a milling process in which the cutting direction is from the workpiece to the cutting tool, while down milling is a milling process in which the cutting direction is from the cutting tool to the workpiece. The cutting direction affects the cutting force and surface finish in metal cutting.

What is the difference between form and face milling in metal cutting?

Form milling is a milling process in which a cutting tool with a complex shape is used to generate a form on the surface of the workpiece, while face milling is a milling process in which a cutting tool with a flat surface is used to generate a flat surface on the workpiece. The shape of the cutting tool affects the cutting force and surface finish in metal cutting.

What is the difference between face and peripheral milling in metal cutting?

Face milling is a milling process in which a cutting tool is used to generate a flat surface on the workpiece, while peripheral milling is a milling process in which a cutting tool is used to generate a curved surface on the workpiece. The shape of the surface generated by the cutting tool affects the cutting force and cutting speed.

What is the difference between drilling and boring in metal cutting?

Drilling is a cutting process in which a rotating cutting tool is used to generate a hole in the workpiece, while boring is a cutting process in which a rotating cutting tool is used to enlarge an existing hole in the workpiece to a precise size. The purpose of the cutting operation distinguishes drilling from boring.

What is the difference between turning and facing in metal cutting?

Turning is a cutting process in which a rotating cutting tool is used to generate a cylindrical surface on the workpiece, while facing is a cutting process in which a rotating cutting tool is used to generate a flat surface on the workpiece. The shape of the surface generated by the cutting tool distinguishes turning from facing.

What is the difference between plain and slot milling in metal cutting?

Plain milling is a cutting process in which a cutting tool is used to generate a flat surface on the workpiece, while slot milling is a cutting process in which a cutting tool is used to generate a slot or groove in the workpiece. The shape of the surface generated by the cutting tool distinguishes plain milling from slot milling.

What is the difference between trepanning and reaming in metal cutting?

Trepanning is a cutting process in which a rotating cutting tool is used to generate a hole with a larger diameter than the cutting tool itself, while reaming is a cutting process in which a rotating cutting tool is used to enlarge an existing hole to a precise size. The purpose of the cutting operation distinguishes trepanning from reaming.

What is the difference between tapping and threading in metal cutting?

Tapping is a cutting process in which a cutting tool is used to generate internal threads in a hole, while threading is a cutting process in which a cutting tool is used to generate external threads on a cylindrical workpiece. The location of the threads distinguishes tapping from threading.

What is the difference between broaching and shaper cutting in metal cutting?

Broaching is a cutting process in which a linear cutting tool is used to generate a complex shape on the workpiece, while shaper cutting is a cutting process in which a reciprocating cutting tool is used to generate a simple shape on the workpiece. The shape of the surface generated by the cutting tool distinguishes broaching from shaper cutting.

What is the difference between sawing and hacksawing in metal cutting?

Sawing is a cutting process in which a continuous or reciprocating cutting tool is used to generate a straight or curved surface on the workpiece, while hacksawing is a cutting process in which a reciprocating cutting tool with a thin blade is used to generate a straight or curved surface on the workpiece. The type of cutting tool distinguishes sawing from hacksawing.

What is the difference between abrasive cutting and electro-discharge machining in metal cutting?

Abrasive cutting is a cutting process in which a hard abrasive material is used to cut the workpiece by grinding, while electro-discharge machining is a cutting process in which electrical discharge is used to erode material from the workpiece. The type of cutting force distinguishes abrasive cutting from electro-discharge machining.

What is the difference between electro-chemical grinding and electro-chemical machining in metal cutting?

Electro-chemical grinding is a combination of electro-chemical machining and conventional grinding, in which a grinding wheel is used along with an electrolyte fluid to remove material from the workpiece. Electro-chemical machining is a cutting process in which electrical discharge is used to erode material from the workpiece. The use of a grinding wheel distinguishes electro-chemical grinding from electro-chemical machining.

What is the difference between laser cutting and plasma cutting in metal cutting?

Laser cutting is a cutting process in which a laser beam is used to heat and vaporize material from the workpiece, while plasma cutting is a cutting process in which a plasma arc is used to melt and vaporize material from the workpiece. The type of cutting energy source distinguishes laser cutting from plasma cutting.

What is the difference between water jet cutting and sand blasting in metal cutting?

Water jet cutting is a cutting process in which a high-pressure stream of water is used to cut the workpiece, while sand blasting is a cutting process in which a high-pressure stream of abrasive particles is used to cut the workpiece. The type of cutting media distinguishes water jet cutting from sand blasting.

What is the difference between forging and stamping in metal cutting?

Forging is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by compressive forces applied through hammering or pressing, while stamping is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by compressive forces applied through a punch and die. The method of applying compressive forces distinguishes forging from stamping.

What is the difference between roll forming and tube bending in metal cutting?

Roll forming is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by passing it through a series of rollers, while tube bending is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by applying pressure to it with a bending tool. The method of shaping the workpiece distinguishes roll forming from tube bending.

What is the difference between extrusion and drawing in metal cutting?

Extrusion is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by forcing it through a die, while drawing is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by pulling it through a die. The direction of force application distinguishes extrusion from drawing.

What is the difference between spinning and deep drawing in metal cutting?

Spinning is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by rotating it and pressing it against a tool, while deep drawing is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by drawing it into a die. The method of shaping the workpiece distinguishes spinning from deep drawing.

What is the difference between coining and embossing in metal cutting?

Coining is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by applying high compressive forces with a punch and die, while embossing is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by applying high compressive forces to its surface with a patterned punch. The purpose of the compressive forces distinguishes coining from embossing.

What is the difference between forging and casting in metal cutting?

Forging is a metal forming process in which a workpiece is shaped by compressive forces applied through hammering or pressing, while casting is a metal forming process in which a liquid metal is poured into a mold and allowed to solidify.

Metal Cutting: Viva/ Interview Questions and Answers

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