Machine tools: Viva Questions and Answers

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Viva Questions and Answers of Machine tools

What are machine tools?

Machine tools are tools that are used to shape and form metal and other materials by cutting, grinding, drilling, and other machining processes. They are the backbone of the manufacturing industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, from household appliances to industrial machinery.

What are the different types of machine tools?

The different types of machine tools include lathes, milling machines, drilling machines, grinding machines, saws, punches, presses, and many others.

How does a lathe machine work?

A lathe machine is used to turn cylindrical objects, such as shafts and rods, and shape them into a desired form. It works by rotating the workpiece while a cutting tool is held against it, removing material and shaping the workpiece into the desired form.

What are the different types of milling machines?

The different types of milling machines include vertical milling machines, horizontal milling machines, and universal milling machines.

What is drilling?

Drilling is the process of cutting a cylindrical hole into a workpiece using a rotating cutting tool called a drill bit. It is used to create holes for fastening, connecting, or mounting components.

What is grinding?

Grinding is the process of removing material from a workpiece by using an abrasive wheel to cut away small chips of material. It is used to smooth and finish the surface of a workpiece, and to produce a high degree of precision and accuracy in the final product.

What is a saw?

A saw is a cutting tool used to cut through materials such as wood, metal, or plastic. There are many different types of saws, including handsaws, circular saws, band saws, and jigsaws.

What is a punch?

A punch is a tool used to make holes in material, usually by pressing a cutting tool through the material. Punches are used in manufacturing processes to create holes for fastening, connecting, or mounting components.

What is a press?

A press is a machine used to apply pressure to a workpiece in order to shape, form, or join it. Presses can be hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical, and are used in a wide range of manufacturing processes, including forging, stamping, and deep drawing.

What are the different materials that can be machined by machine tools?

The different materials that can be machined by machine tools include metal, plastic, wood, ceramics, composites, and many others. The type of material being machined will determine the type of machine tool and cutting tools that are used.


What is a cutting speed in a machine tool, and why is it important?

Cutting speed is a measure of the speed at which a cutting tool moves across the surface of a workpiece during a machining operation. It is an important factor in determining the efficiency and quality of the machining operation, as it affects the cutting force, tool wear, and surface finish of the workpiece.

What is a feed rate in a machine tool, and why is it important?

Feed rate is a measure of the distance that a cutting tool moves into the workpiece during a machining operation. It is an important factor in determining the efficiency and quality of the machining operation, as it affects the cutting force, tool wear, and surface finish of the workpiece.

What is a cutting fluid in a machine tool, and why is it used?

Cutting fluid is a liquid or semi-liquid material that is used to cool and lubricate the cutting tool and workpiece during a machining operation. Cutting fluids are used to reduce the cutting force, minimize tool wear, and improve the surface finish of the workpiece.

What is a workholding device in a machine tool, and what are the different types of workholding devices?

A workholding device is a device used to secure the workpiece in place during a machining operation. There are several different types of workholding devices, including vises, clamps, and chuck jaws. The choice of workholding device will depend on the type of machining operation being performed and the size and shape of the workpiece.

What is a spindle in a machine tool, and what is its function?

A spindle is a rotating shaft that is used to hold and drive the cutting tool in a machine tool. The spindle is an essential component of the machine tool, and its function is to rotate the cutting tool at high speeds, allowing it to perform a machining operation on the workpiece.

What is a cutting force in a machine tool, and why is it important?

Cutting force is the force that is exerted by the cutting tool on the workpiece during a machining operation. It is an important factor in determining the efficiency and quality of the machining operation, as it affects the tool wear, surface finish of the workpiece, and the overall machining time.

What is a tool life in a machine tool, and why is it important?

Tool life is a measure of the amount of time that a cutting tool can be used before it needs to be replaced. It is an important factor in determining the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the machining operation, as it affects the overall cost of the machining operation, including the cost of the cutting tool and the time required to replace it.

What is a surface finish in a machine tool, and why is it important?

Surface finish is a measure of the smoothness and texture of the surface of a workpiece after a machining operation. It is an important factor in determining the quality of the machining operation, as it affects the appearance and functionality of the workpiece. Surface finish is influenced by several factors, including cutting speed, feed rate, cutting fluid, and cutting tool geometry.


What is CNC machine

CNC stands for Computer Numeric Control, and refers to a type of machine tool that is controlled by a computer program. The computer program provides precise instructions to the machine tool, which allows for highly accurate and repeatable machining operations.

What are the advantages of CNC machines over conventional machine tools?

CNC machines have several advantages over conventional machine tools, including increased accuracy and repeatability, faster production times, greater flexibility and versatility, and the ability to produce complex shapes and geometries with ease.

What is the role of a tool holder in a machine tool?

A tool holder is a device that holds and positions a cutting tool in a machine tool. It is an essential component of a machine tool, as it helps to maintain the cutting tool in the correct position and at the correct angle relative to the workpiece, which ensures accurate and efficient machining operations.

What is a cutting fluid in a machine tool, and why is it used?

A cutting fluid is a liquid or semi-liquid substance that is used in machine tools to cool and lubricate the cutting tool and workpiece during the machining process. Cutting fluids are used to reduce friction and heat, which helps to prolong the life of the cutting tool, improve the accuracy and quality of the machined product, and increase the overall efficiency of the machining process.

What is a workholding device in a machine tool, and why is it important?

A workholding device is a tool or fixture that is used to hold and position a workpiece in a machine tool. It is important because it helps to secure the workpiece in place during machining, which ensures that the machining operations are accurate and consistent.

What is a spindle in a machine tool, and what is its function?

A spindle is a rotating shaft in a machine tool that holds and spins the cutting tool. It is the central component of a machine tool and is responsible for rotating the cutting tool at a high speed, which is necessary for efficient and effective machining operations.

What is a cutting speed in a machine tool, and how is it determined?

Cutting speed is a term used to describe the speed at which a cutting tool moves across the surface of a workpiece. It is determined by a number of factors, including the type of material being machined, the type of cutting tool being used, and the desired surface finish and accuracy of the machined product.

What is a feed rate in a machine tool, and how is it determined?

Feed rate is a term used to describe the speed at which a cutting tool moves into the workpiece. It is determined by a number of factors, including the type of material being machined, the type of cutting tool being used, and the desired surface finish and accuracy of the machined product.


What is a machine tool control system?

A machine tool control system is a system that manages and controls the operations of a machine tool. It typically includes a computer, software, and a control panel, and is responsible for communicating with the machine tool and providing it with the necessary instructions for performing specific machining operations.

What are the different types of machine tool control systems?

There are several different types of machine tool control systems, including NC (Numerical Control), CNC (Computer Numeric Control), DNC (Distributed Numeric Control), and PLC (Programmable Logic Controller).

What is a NC machine tool control system?

NC stands for Numerical Control, and refers to a type of machine tool control system that uses punched tape to provide instructions to the machine tool. NC machine tool control systems were the first type of machine tool control systems to be developed and are still widely used in many industrial applications.

What is a DNC machine tool control system?

DNC stands for Distributed Numeric Control, and refers to a type of machine tool control system that uses a computer network to communicate with multiple machine tools simultaneously. DNC systems allow for greater flexibility and efficiency in large-scale machining operations.

What is a PLC machine tool control system?

PLC stands for Programmable Logic Controller, and refers to a type of machine tool control system that uses a programmable computer to control the operations of the machine tool. PLC systems are widely used in a variety of industrial applications, and are known for their reliability and ease of use.

What is a cutting tool material, and what are the most commonly used materials?

A cutting tool material is a material that is used to manufacture cutting tools, such as drills, end mills, and turning tools. The most commonly used materials include high-speed steel, tungsten carbide, and ceramics.

What is a cutting tool geometry, and what are the most commonly used geometries?

Cutting tool geometry refers to the shape and configuration of a cutting tool. The most commonly used geometries include end mills, drills, and turning tools. Each geometry is designed to perform specific machining operations and is chosen based on the material being machined, the desired surface finish and accuracy, and other factors.

What is a cutting edge in a machine tool, and what is its importance?

A cutting edge is the part of a cutting tool that actually comes into contact with the workpiece during machining. The cutting edge is one of the most important components of a cutting tool, as it determines the efficiency and effectiveness of the machining operation. The shape and configuration of the cutting edge must be carefully chosen to ensure optimal performance.


What is a CNC machine, and how does it work?

CNC stands for Computer Numeric Control, and it refers to a type of machine tool that is controlled by a computer program. In a CNC machine, the cutting tool is moved and controlled by computer-generated instructions, allowing for highly precise and automated machining operations. CNC machines can perform a wide range of machining operations, including drilling, milling, and turning.

What is a CAM software, and how is it used in CNC machining?

CAM stands for Computer-Aided Manufacturing, and it refers to software that is used to create computer-generated instructions for CNC machines. CAM software allows engineers and machinists to design and program complex machining operations, and it is used in CNC machining to generate the instructions that control the cutting tool’s movements.

What is a CAD software, and how is it used in CNC machining?

CAD stands for Computer-Aided Design, and it refers to software that is used to create and manipulate digital models of objects. In CNC machining, CAD software is used to create 3D models of the workpiece, which can then be used to generate the cutting paths for the CNC machine.

What is a cutting tool path in CNC machining, and why is it important?

The cutting tool path is the path that the cutting tool follows during a machining operation. In CNC machining, the cutting tool path is generated by the CAM software and is used to control the movement of the cutting tool. The cutting tool path is an important factor in determining the efficiency and quality of the machining operation, as it affects the cutting force, tool wear, and surface finish of the workpiece.

What is a G-code in CNC machining, and what is its role?

G-code is a language used to control CNC machines. It is a series of instructions that describe the cutting tool’s movements and the machining operation to be performed. The G-code is generated by the CAM software and is used to control the CNC machine.

What is a rapid traverse in CNC machining, and what is its purpose?

Rapid traverse is a term used in CNC machining to describe the rapid movement of the cutting tool from one location to another. The purpose of rapid traverse is to save time and increase the efficiency of the machining operation by allowing the cutting tool to move quickly between different cutting locations.

What is a backlash in CNC machining, and why is it important to consider?

Backlash is a term used to describe the amount of slack or play in the mechanical components of a CNC machine. Backlash can affect the accuracy and precision of the machining operation, and it is important to consider when programming and operating a CNC machine. To minimize the effects of backlash, it is important to properly calibrate the CNC machine and to choose the right cutting tools and workholding devices.

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