Kinematic Drives Of Machine Tools: Types of Drives

Kinematic Drives of Machine Tools

Every machine tool is required to perform one or both of the following kinematic functions:

1. To transmit motion from the input shaft to the output spindle.

2. To transform rotary motion in to translator or reciprocating motion or vice – versa

These transformations in a machine tool are achieved through a chine higher or lower pairs, which consist of the machine tool drive or drive mechanism. The term “Drive” includes all the systems of the transmission used in a machine tool to import cutting and feeding motions.

Types of Drives: 

Machine tool drives, based on different criteria, can be classified as follows:

1. According to the mode of power supply:

a) Individual Drive or Self-Contained Drive

b) Group Drive or Common Drive

2. According to the system of transmission:

a) Mechanical Drives – Belt & pulleys, Gear trains, Power Screws and nuts, Chains etc.

b) Electrical Drives

c) Hydraulic Drives

d) Pneumatic Drives

3. According to the type of motion imported by the drive:

a) Rectilinear Drive – Straight line Motion.

b) Rotary Drive – Circular Motion.

4. According to the regulation of spindle speeds:

a) Stepped Drive.

b) Stepless Drive.

Selection of drive depends upon production time, surface finish and accuracy required, optimum efficiency, power to weight ratio, simplicity of design with respect to maintenance, repair and control.

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