Different Types of Metal Forming Processes: Rolling, Forging, Extrusion, Drawing, Shearing, Bending, Deep Drawing

Different Types of Metal Forming Processes

Metal forming processes can be classified under two major groups. Bulk deformation processes and sheet metal working processes.Bulk deformation is characteristic in that the work formed has a low surface area to volume ratio. In sheet metal working, the metal being processed will have a high surface area to volume ratio. 

The following is a brief overview of the major metal forming processes that will be covered in detail later.

Bulk Deformation


Rolling is a metal forming process that deforms the work by the use of rolls. Rolling processes include flat rolling, shape rolling, ring rolling, thread rolling, gear rolling, and the production of seamless tube and pipe by rotary tube piercing or roll piercing.


Forging is characteristic in the use of dies to compress and shape a work piece. The die may be flat or may contain an impression of a certain geometry.


Extrusion involves forming by forcing metal through a die opening, producing work of variable length and constant cross section.


Drawing is similar to extrusion, in that a length of metal is made to flow through a die opening and forming is done over its cross section.

The difference between drawing and extrusion is the application of force to the work piece. In extrusion the work is pushed through the die opening, in drawing the work is pulled through the die opening.

Sheet Metal Working


Shearing is the cutting of the work piece, this would include punching holes. Technically shearing does not involve shaping by plastic deformation, but it is a critical process in sheet metal working operations and should be understood along with metal forming processes.


Bending involves the deformation of the work by way of bending about a certain axis.

Deep Drawing: 

Deep drawing is a metal forming process in which a flat piece of plate or sheet is forced into a die cavity to take a shape, such as a cup.

1 thought on “Different Types of Metal Forming Processes: Rolling, Forging, Extrusion, Drawing, Shearing, Bending, Deep Drawing”

  1. Nice Post! thanks for sharing such an informative post here. I read a lot of articles on the rolled ring process but your content is different it helped me to better understand about process & types.


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