Chip-Breakers: Common methods used for chip breaking, Types of Chip-Breakers

Chip-Breakers

The chips produced during machining at higher speeds in machining of high tensile strength materials, need to be effectively controlled. Carbide tipped tools are used in case of higher speeds and due to high temperature the chip will be continuous of blue colour and take the shape of coil. Such a chip, if not broken in to parts and removed from the surroundings of the metal cutting area, will adversely affect the machining in the fallowing way.

Chip-Breakers: Common methods used for chip breaking, Types of Chip-Breakers
Types of Chip-Breakers


a) Adversely affect tool life by spoiling the cutting edge, creating crater and raising the temperature.

b) Lead to poor surface finish on the work-piece.

c) The chips get curled around the rotating work-piece and cutting tool, it may be hazardous to the machine operator.

d) If large and continuous coil is allowed to be formed it may endanger the machine and even the work place.

e) Very large coils offer a lot of difficulty in their removal.

While machining materials like brass and cast-iron continuous chips of above type are not produced.

 But in case of continuous chips, by using chip breakers, we can overcome the above difficulties and adverse affects. 

The chip breakers break the produced chips in to small pieces. The work hardening of the material of the chip makes the work of the chip breakers easy.

The common methods used for chip breaking are:

i) By control of tool geometry i.e. grinding proper back rake and side rake angles according to the speeds and feeds used.

ii) By obstruction method i.e. by inters posing a metallic obstruction in the path of the coil.

The following types of chip breakers are commonly used:

a) Groove type: 

It consists of a grinding groove on the face of the tool, behind the cutting edge, leaving a small land near the tip.

b) Step type: 

It consists of a grinding a step on the face of the tool, adjacent to the cutting edge.

c) Secondary rake type: 

It consists of providing a secondary rake on the tool, through grinding, together with a small step.

d) Clamp type: 

This type of chip breaker is very common with the carbide tipped tools. The chip breaker is a thin and small plate, which is either brazed to or held mechanically on the tool face.

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