Engineering materials: Classification of Engineering Materials, Physical Properties of Metals

Engineering materials and Physical Properties of Metals

The physical properties of the metals include luster, colour, size and shape, density, electric and thermal conductivity, and melting point. The following table shows the important physical properties of some pure metals.

The knowledge of materials and their properties is of great significance for a design engineer. The machine elements should be made of such a material which has properties suitable for the conditions of operation. In addition to this, a design engineer must be familiar with the effects which the manufacturing processes and heat treatment have on the properties of the materials. Now, we shall discuss the commonly used engineering materials and their properties in Machine Design.

Classification of Engineering Materials

The engineering materials are mainly classified as:

1. Metals and their alloys, such as iron, steel, copper, aluminum, etc.

2. Non-metals, such as glass, rubber, plastic, etc.

 The metals may be further classified as:

(a) Ferrous metals and 

(b) Non-ferrous metals.

The *ferrous metals are those which have the iron as their main constituent, such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel.

The non-ferrous metals are those which have a metal other than iron as their main constituent, such as copper, aluminum, brass, tin, zinc, etc.

Physical Properties of Metals

The physical properties of the metals include luster, colour, size and shape, density, electric and thermal conductivity, and melting point. The following table shows the important physical properties of some pure metals.

Leave a Comment