SPOT WELDING

SPOT WELDING

Aim: To study the effect of the current on weld strength-using spot welding process

Equipment: Spot welding machine

Material Required: two metal pieces of size 4”x2”




Description of The Equipment: A typical resistance spot welding machine essentially consists of two electrodes, out of which one is fixed. The other electrode is fixed to a rocker arm (to provide mechanical advantage) for transmitting mechanical force from a pneumatic cylinder. This is simplest type of arrangement. The other possibility is that of a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder being directly connected to the electrode without any rocker arm.

For welding large assemblies such as car bodies, portable spot welding machines are used. Here the electrode holder and the pneumatic pressurizing system is present in the form of a portable assembly which is taken to the place, where the spot is to be made. The electric current, compressed air and the cooling water needed for the electrodes is supplied through cable and hoses from the main welding machine to the portabe unit.

In spot welding, a satisfactory weld is obtained when a proper current density (A/Sq mm) is maintained. The current density depends on the contact area between the electrode and the work piece. With the continuous use, if the tip becomes upset and the contact area increases, the current density will be lowered and consequently the weld is obtained over a large area. This would not but able to melt the metal and hence there would be no proper fusion.

A resistance-welding schedule is the sequence of events that normally take place in each of the welds. The events are the squeeze time is the time required for the electrodes to align and clamp the two work pieces together under them and provides the necessary electrical contact.

The weld time is the time of the current flow through the work pieces till they are heated to the melting temperature.

The hold time is the time when the pressure is to be maintained on the molten metal without the electric current. During this time, the pieces are to be forge welded.

The off time is time during which, the pressure on the electrode is taken off so that the plates can be positioned for the next spot. The off time is not normally specified for simple spot welding, but only when a series of spots are to be made in a predetermined pitch.

Procedure:

1. Switch on the machine and set the current in the machine to 2 Ampere

2. Set the timer to two seconds

3. Over lap the two metal pieces to the requires size and place them between the two electrodes.

4. Apply pressure by foot on the lever such that two electrodes come into contact if the over lapped metals.

5. After 2 seconds remove the pressure on the lever slowly.

6. Now the joint is ready for use.

7. Repeat the same procedure at various amperes

8. Test the strength of the joints using universal testing machine.

Precautions:

1. Ensure that the electrodes should not be touched.

2. Don’t touch the welded potion by hand immediately after the welding is done.

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