CAD/CAM & Robotics: CAD, Cam, Specifications of robotics, Overview of Robotics, Applications of robots and Future Applications of Robots

CAD/CAM & Robotics:-

CAD/CAM is a term which means computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing. It is the technology concerned with the use of digital computers to perform certain functions in design & production.

CAD:- 

CAD can be defined as the use of computer systems to assist in the creation modification, analysis OR optimization of design.

Cam:- 

CAM can be defined as the use of computer system to plan, manage & control the operation of a manufacturing plant, through either direct or in direct computer interface with the plant’s production resources.

Specifications of robotics:-

1. Axil of motion

2. Work stations

3. Speed

4. Acceleration

5. Pay load capacity

6. Accuracy

7. Repeatability etc…

Overview of Robotics:-

“Robotics” is defined as the science of designing and building Robots which are suitable for real life application in automated manufacturing and other non-manufacturing environments. It has the following objectives,

1.To increase productivity

2. Reduce production life

3. Minimize labour requirement

4. Enhanced quality of the products

5. Minimize loss of man hours, on account of accidents.

6. Make reliable and high speed production.

The robots are classified as, Programmable/Reprogrammable purpose robots

*Tele-operated, Man controlled robots *Intelligent robots.

Robots are used in manufacturing and assembly units such as,

1. Spot or arc welding

2. Parts assembly

3. Paint spraying

4. Material, handling

5. Loading and unloading

The feature and capabilities of the robots are as follows,

1. Intelligence

2. Sensor capabilities

3. Telepresence

4. Mechanical design

5. Mobility and navigation

6. Universal gripper

7. System integration and networking.

Types of drive systems:-

1.Hydraulic drive

2. Electric drive

3. Pneumatic drive

1. Hydraulic drive:-

Hydraulic drive and electric drive arc the two main types of drives used on more sophisticated robots.

1. Hydraulic drive

Hydraulic drive is generally associated with larger robots, such as the Unimate 2000 series. The usual advantages of the hydraulic drive system are that it provides the robot with greater speed and strength. The disadvantages of the hydraulic drive system are that it typically adds to the floor space required by the robot, and that a hydraulic system is inclined to leak on which is a nuisance.

This type of system can also be called as non-air powered cylinders. In this system, oil is used as a working fluid instead of compressed air. Hydraulic system need pump to generate the required pressure and flow rate. These systems are quite complex, costly and require maintenance.

2. Electric drive

Electric drive systems do not generally provide as much speed or power as hydraulic systems. However, the accuracy and repeatability of electric drive robots are usually better. Consequently, electric robots tend to be smaller. Require less floor space, and their applications tend toward more precise work such as assembly.

In this System, power is developed by an electric current. It required little maintenance and the operation is noise less.

3. Pneumatic drive

Pneumatic drive is generally reserved for smaller robots that possess fewer degrees of freedom (two- to four-joint motions).

In this system, air is used as a working fluid, hence it is also called air-powered cylinders. Air is compressed in the cylinder with the aid of pump the compressed air is used to generate the power with required amount of pressure and flow rates.

Applications of robots

Present Applications of Robots:-

(i) Material transfer applications

(ii) Machine loading and unloading

(iii) Processing operations like,

(a) Spot welding

(b) Continuous arc welding

(c) Spray coating

(d) Drilling, routing, machining operations

(e) Grinding, polishing debarring wire brushing

(g) Laser drilling and cutting etc.

(iv) Assembly tasks, assembly cell designs, parts mating.

(v) Inspection, automation.

Future Applications of Robots:-

The profile of the future robot based on the research activities will include the following,

(i) Intelligence

(ii) Sensor capabilities

(iii) Telepresence

(iv) Mechanical design

(v) Mobility and navigation (walking machines)

(vi) Universal gripper

(vii) Systems and integration and networking

(viii) FMS (Flexible Manufacturing Systems)

(Ix) Hazardous and inaccessible non-manufacturing environments

(x) Underground coal mining

(xi) Fire fighting operations

(xii) Robots in space

(xiii) Security guards

(xiv) Garbage collection and waste disposal operations

(xv) Household robots

(xvi) Medical care and hospital duties etc.

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