Electric Arc Furnaces: Capacity, Furnace temperature, Construction, Heating energy source and Advantages of Electric Arc Furnaces

Electric Arc Furnaces This furnace can be described as a furnace heating charged materials by the way of an electric arc. The first electric furnaces came into being in 1907, at the hands of Paul Heroult of French origin. The commercial part of these furnaces was established in the USA. Electric Arc Furnaces CAPACITY These … Read more

Reference Books List for Civil Services Examination conducted by UPSC

Reference Books List for Civil Services Examination conducted by UPSC i) Prelim Paper I India’s struggle For Independence – Bipan Chandra NCERT – Modern India ( Old) Geography NCERT – Std. 10th –12th Geography of India – Gopal Singh Certificate Physical and Human Geography – G. C. Leong Our Constitution – Subhash Kashyap Our Parliament … Read more

How to Prepare for UPSC Prelims: UPSC IAS Prelims Format, Few Tips, Academic Qualification and UPSC Prelims Preparation Books for CURRENT AFFAIRS

How to Prepare for UPSC Prelims Civil Services Examination is conducted by the UPSC every year to recruit officers for various reputed government posts. It is one of the toughest examinations in the country. There are three stages of this examination – Prelims, Mains and IAS Interview. The first stage- Prelims exam consists of two papers, … Read more


TRACK JUNCTION Track junctions are formed by the combination of points and crossings. Their main objective is to transfer rail vehicles from one track to another or to enable them to cross from one track to another. Depending upon the requirements of traffic, there can be several types of track junctions with simple track layouts. … Read more

Transmission Electron Microscope: Electron Gun and Applications of TEM

Transmission Electron Microscope A TEM comprises three lenses: an objective lens, an intermediate lens, and a projector lens. The microscope is built in such a way that it allows easy switching from the high-magnification imaging mode to the selected-area diffraction mode. The optical system of a TEM is shown in Fig.  Movable selection apertures are placed in … Read more

X-RAY DIFFRACTION SYSTEM: Principles of XRD, Bragg Law, Two-dimensional XRD System and Applications of XRD System

X-RAY DIFFRACTION SYSTEM An X-ray diffraction (XRD) system is an ideal method for examining samples of metals, polymers, ceramics, semiconductors, thin films, and coatings. It can also be employed for forensic and archaeological analysis. A 2-D diffraction pattern provides abundant information on the atomic arrangement, microstructure, and defects of a solid or liquid material. Principles of XRD X-rays … Read more

Atomic Force Microscope: Applications of AFM, Force Measurement Using AFM and Comparison among AFM, SEM, and TEM

Atomic Force Microscope Although STM was considered a fundamental advancement for scientific research, it had limited applications, because it worked only on electrically conductive samples. This limitation led the inventors to think about a new instrument that would be able to image insulating samples. In 1986, Binnig, Quate, and Gerber showed how improvization could be done by … Read more

Scanning Tunnelling Microscope: Applications of STM and Surface Topography Measurement

Scanning Tunnelling Microscope The STM was invented by Binnig, Rohrer, and their co-workers at IBM Research Laboratory, Zurich, Switzerland, in the early 1980s. The 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Binnig and Rohrer for their design of the STM. An STM provides 3-D atomic-scale images of the surface of a sample. It has a stylus with … Read more