Effect of Alloying Elements in Steel: Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, Vanadium, Molybdenum and Tungsten

Effect of Alloying Elements in Steel

Chromium as an alloying element in steel

It joins with carbon to form chromium carbide, thus adds to depth hardenability with improved resistance to abrasion & wear.

Manganese as an alloying element in steel

1) It contributes markedly to strength and hardness.

2) It counteracts brittleness from sulphur.

3) Lowers both ductility & weldability if it is present in high percentage with high carbon content in steel.

Nickel as an alloying element in steel

1) It increases toughness & resistance to impact.

2) It lessens distortion in quenching.

3) It Lowers the critical temperatures of steel & widens the range of successful heat treatment.

4) It strengthens steels.

5) It Renders high-chromium iron alloys austenitic.

6) It does not unite with carbon.

Vanadium as an alloying element in steel

1) It promotes fine grains in steel.

2) It increases hardenability.

3) It imparts strength & toughness to heat-treated steel

4) It causes marked secondary hardening.

Molybdenum as an alloying element in steel

1) It promotes hardenability of steel.

2) It makes steel fine grained.

3) It makes steel unusually tough at various hardness levels.

4) It counteracts tendency towards temper brittleness.

5) It raises tensile & creep strength at high temperatures.

6) It enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steels.

7) It forms abrasion resisting particles.

Tungsten as an alloying element in steel

1) It increases hardness.

2) It promotes fine grains.

3) It resists heat.

4) It promotes strength at elevated temperature.



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