The common forging defects can be traced to defects in raw material, improper heating of material, Faulty design of dies and improper forging practice. Most common defects present in forgings are:
• Laps and Cracks at corners or surfaces lap is caused due to following over of a layer of material over another surface. These defects are caused by improper forging and faulty die design.
• Incomplete forging—either due to less material or inadequate or improper flow of material.
• Mismatched forging due to improperly aligned die halves.
• Scale pits—due to squeezing of scales into the metal surface during hammering action.
• Burnt or overheated metal—due to improper heating.
• Internal cracks in the forging which are caused by use of heavy hammer blows and improperly heated and soaked material.