PLANNING FOR INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND OBJECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL SAFETY


 PLANNING FOR INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

Mis-happening of a large number of fire
hazards, accidents, industrial disasters etc., can be reduced to the minimum
possible extent through careful safety planning within an industrial
organization. All these
unwanted events
can be prevented by effective planning for
safety.
Safety consideration includes proper layout of buildings and equipment,
such as providing adequate ventilation, sufficient working area to the
operator, clear pathways  for
movement
  of materials and parts, provision for adequate personnel
facilities- viz., canteens,
lunch rooms, dispensary, fire
fighting
services, etc. Careful
planning in advance for optimized and safe layout of design and manufacturing
activities for industry ensures industrial safety in
the manufacturing and inventory areas. Incorporating safety
considerations well in time are helpful for the establishment of a new plant as
well as an existing plant needing major alterations. Such considerations lead
to adequate safety to men, machine and equipments, reduction in operational
time and increase in production. Several codes and standards
for industrial safety, health
and hygiene, fire prevention, etc. have been prescribed by government and
other safety agencies and they should be fully taken care of at the planning
and implementation stages of a plant. A number of important features should be
considered
and suitably incorporated
planning the
layout of a new plant
and its buildings for
safety. Hoists and conveyors are commonly used in
industries for raising, lowering and transporting loads for
limited
distances. A high degree
of safety is needed while these equipments are in operation. During operations of these equipments,
one should keep in mind the following important safety
measures.

Material handling and its storage are very common
functions in a plant. Material
handling when performed
manually the
chances of injuries are
greater. Therefore the following points should be taken care for carrying
out such
tasks. All material
handling equipments
such as
conveyers, automotive guided vehicles, robots, cranes should carry proper
guards for its gears and
other dangerous moving parts to prevent access
from these parts during operation. All hoisting devices must be equipped with limit
switches for preventing loads block from over
traveling
accidentally. Hoisting equipment especially cranes, should only
be operated by properly
trained personnel for avoiding all sorts of mishaps or accidents. While
operating a crane,
the operator
should be entirely guided by standard signal and both operator and his signaler
should be thoroughly trained. Proper protections against fire and explosion
hazards are required when gasoline operated crains are being used. Where manual
loading is done on conveyors which run along a vertical path, either partially
or
totally, safe load sign should be
prominently
displayed on all loading
stations. Sufficient lighting,
ventilation, drainage, escape
ways and guarding should be provided for conveyors which run in pits,
tunnels and similar other
enclosures. Riding
on a conveyor should
always be
prohibited. All the persons working on or around the conveyor must wear tight
cloths and safety
shoes. All rotating, reciprocating and projecting
parts of machinery and equipments such as sprockets, gears, etc., should be
adequately protected by proper
guarding. An
effective lubrication schedule should be
worked
out and implemented. All inspection should be carried out regularly and
worn out
parts, if any, should be replaced immediately.

The workers should be properly
trained
to adopt safe working
habits
and proper supervision should be done while
these operations are being carried out manually.
Industrial personnel and unskilled workers should be adequately trained
for adopting safe working habits in the proper
ways of lifting and setting down the objects. They should be told to be careful
from pinches and shear points and to grasp the articles
firmly when lifting
or setting down. Objects
which are wet or dirty or have slippery surfaces,
such as greasy or oily and wet articles should be
completely wiped off dry before handling them. The hands should also be kept
free of oil and grease. For
preventing hand injuries the handlers should be made to wear protective
clothing like leather hand gloves, sleeves, etc. The worker handling materials
should always wear foot in order to
prevent foot injuries. If an object is to be lifted and carried to some
distance it should be ensured that the pathway is not slippery and there are no
obstructions on the passage or way. The unskilled industrial workers
should be properly trained for keeping correct positions of their feet,
positions of back and knees, holding the object close    to the body while lifting and carrying,
correct and firm grip, position of chin and application of body weight in
lifting and setting down by hand. This will help to prevent muscle strains and
back injuries. When a gang or team of workers is used to carry a heavy load
form one place to another the
supervisor should ensure the use of proper tools and direct the work himself to
ensure proper synchronization in the lifting, walking and setting down actions
of all the workers involved. While transporting material by trucks, the truck
should be operated at safe limit speed as specified and special care should be taken at blind corners
and doorways. During storing
material, it should be ensured that the electrical panels and installations and fire extinguishers and hoses are kept
clear and have free accessibility. Also the pathways, entries and exits should always
be kept clear for movement. The use of racks and bins enables more storage capacity, easy movement of material from
one place to another and ensures better
safety in an industrial organization.


Objectives of Industrial
Safety

The objectives of industrial safety are as
follows:

1. 
Industrial safety is
needed to check all the possible
chances of accidents
for preventing loss of life and permanent disability of any
industrial employee, any damage to machine and material
as it leads to the loss to the whole establishment.

2. 
It is needed to eliminate accidents causing work stoppage and production loss.

3.  It is needed to prevent accidents
in industry by reducing any hazard to minimum.

4.  It
is needed to reduce workman’s compensation, insurance rate and all the cost of
accidents.

5.  It is required
to educate all members regarding the safety principles to avoid accidents in industry.

6. 
It
is needed to achieve better
morale of the industrial employees.

7.  It is required to have better human relations
within the industry.

8. 
It
is needed to increase production means to a higher standard
of living.


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