Advanced Materials, Future Materials, and Modern Materials needs

Advanced Materials,  Future Materials, and Modern Materials needs

Advance materials

These are materials used  in  High-Tech  devices those operate based on relatively intricate and sophisticated principles  (e.g. computers, air/space-crafts, electronic gadgets, etc.). These materials are either traditional materials with enhanced properties or newly developed materials with high-performance  capabilities. Hence these are relatively expensive. Typical applications: integrated  circuits, lasers,  LCDs, fiber optics, thermal protection for space shuttle, etc. Examples: Metallic foams, inter-metallic compounds, multi-component alloys, magnetic alloys, special ceramics and high temperature materials, etc. 

Future materials

Group of new and state-of-the-art materials now  being developed, and expected to have significant influence on present-day technologies, especially in  the fields of medicine, manufacturing and defense. Smart/Intelligent  material system  consists some  type of sensor (detects an input) and an actuator (performs responsive and adaptive function). Actuators may be called  upon to change shape,  position, natural frequency, mechanical characteristics in response to changes in temperature, electric/magnetic fields, moisture, pH, etc. Four types of materials used as actuators:  Shape memory alloys, Piezo-electric ceramics, Magnetostrictive materials, Electro-/Magneto-rheological fluids. Materials / Devices used as sensors:  Optical fibers, Piezo-electric materials, Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), etc. Typical applications: By incorporating sensors, actuators and  chip processors into system, researchers are able to  stimulate biological  human-like behavior;  Fibers for bridges, buildings,  and wood utility poles; They also help in fast moving and accurate robot parts, high speed helicopter rotor blades; Actuators  that control chatter in precision machine tools; Small microelectronic circuits  in machines ranging from  computers to photo lithography prints; Health monitoring detecting the success or failure of a product. 

Modern materials needs

Though there has been tremendous progress over  the decades in the field of materials science and engineering, innovation of new technologies, and need for better performances of existing technologies demands much more from the materials field. More over it is  evident that new materials/technologies  are needed to be  environmental friendly. Some  typical needs, thus, of modern  materials needs  are listed in  the following: 

•  Engine efficiency increases at high temperatures: requires high temperature structural  materials  

•  Use of nuclear energy requires solving problem  with residues,  or advances in nuclear waste processing. 

 •  Hypersonic flight requires materials  that are light, strong and resist high temperatures. 

 •  Optical communications require  optical fibers that absorb light negligibly. 

 •  Civil construction – materials for unbreakable windows.

  •  Structures: materials that are strong  like  metals and resist corrosion like plastics. 

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