System and Surroundings

 System and Surroundings

introduce boundaries in our study called the system and surroundings.


The boundaries are set up in a way most conducive to
understanding the energetics of what we’re studying.


Defining the system and surroundings
is arbitrary, but it becomes important 
when  we  consider the exchange of energy between the
system and surroundings.


Two types of exchange can occur between system and

 (1) energy exchange  (heat,
work, friction, radiation, etc.) and


(2) matter exchange (movement of molecules
across the boundary of the system and surroundings).


Based on the types of exchange which
take place  or don’t take place, we will
define three  types of systems:

 isolated systems: no exchange of matter
or energy

closed systems: no exchange of matter
but some exchange of energy 

exchange of both matter and energy

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