Internal energy

Internal energy

The molecule as a whole can
move in x, y and z directions with 
respective components of velocities and hence possesses kinetic energy.


There can be rotation of
molecule about its center of mass 
and  than  the   kinetic energy associated with rotation is called rotational energy.


 In addition the bond length
undergoes change and the energy associated with   it is called vibrational energy.


The electron move around the
nucleus and they possess a certain energy that is called electron energy.


The microscopic modes of energy
are due to the internal structure of the   matter and hence sum of all microscopic modes of energy is called
the   internal energy.


 Bulk kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE) are considered
separately   and the other energy of control mass as a single property (U).

              The total energy possessed by   the body is given by

 E =
KE + PE + U

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