Grinding Machine: Working principle of grinding machine, Types of Grinding Machines

Grinding Machine

  • Grinding is a process of removing the wheel on the surface of workpiece. material by the abrasive action of a revolving.
  • During the grinding process, material is removed in the form of small chips.
  • The wheel used for performing the grinding operation is called as grinding wheel.
  • Grinding wheel consists of sharp crystals which are called as abrasives’ held together with the bonding materials.
  • Grinding is considered as finishing operation, because a very small amount of material is removed from the surface.
  • Hence, the machine tool used for providing the good surface finish and high accuracy to the components by removing the small amount of material with the help of grinding wheel is called as grinding machine or grinder.

Working principle of grinding machine

  • Generally, in a grinding machine, the grinding wheel is mounted on the spindle which is driven by an electric motor.
  • During the process, a high speed revolving grinding wheel is brought in contact with the workpiece.
  • ln many of the grinding machines, the workpiece is also revolving (cylindrical grinder) and in some of the machines reciprocating (surface grinders). 

Cylindrical Grinding Machine and Surface Grinding Machine
Cylindrical Grinding Machine and Surface Grinding Machine



Types of Grinding Machines


  • There are various types of grinding machines which have been designed and some of them are used for roughing work, for precision work and for special
  • However, the most commonly used types can be broadly classified as follows :
  1.  Rough or Non-Precision Grinders
  2.  Precision grinders

Rough or Non-Precision grinders

The main purpose of roughing grinders is to remove more material than that can be removed by the other types of grinders this class of grinders include followings grinding machines

  • Bench, pedestal or floor grinders
  • Swing frame grinders
  • Portable grinders
  • Belt grinders


Precision grinders 

Precision grinders remove a small amount of material and finish the workpiece to a very accurate dimension.
As per the type of surface generated, precision grinders are classified as follows:

  • Cylindrical grinders

  1. Plain cylindrical grinders
  2. Universal cylindrical grinders
  3. Centre less grinders

  • Surface grinders 

  1. Reciprocating table: Horizontal spindle, Vertical spindle
  2. Rotary table: Horizontal spindle, Vertical spindle

  • Internal grinders

  1. Plain internal grinders
  2. Universal internal grinders
  3. Planetary internal grinders
  4. Centre less internal grinders

  • Special grinding machines

Roughing or Non-Precision Grinders

Bench, Pedestal or Floor Grinders


These types of grinders are mostly used for Snagging and Off-hand grinding of different materials and cutting tools in tool room, foundries, general workshops, etc.


Bench grinder
Bench grinder



  • It consists of a horizontal spindle having grinding wheels mounted at both the ends.
  • above Fig.  shows a typical bench grinder.
  • Bench grinder can be easily bolted on a bench at convenient height.
  • The floor or pedestal grinders are nothing but a bench grinder which can be mounted on a steel stand or pedestal of suitable height.

pedestal grinder
pedestal grinder


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