Metal Cutting,Types of metal cutting, Orthogonal and oblique cutting

Metal Cutting:-
are two working process of metal in the industries

Non- cutting process:- Forging,
Pressing, Drawing, etc

Cutting process:- Planning, Turning,
Drilling, Milling

Types of metal cutting

A cutting tool may be used for cutting apart, as with a knife,
or for removing chips. Parts are produced by removing metal
mostly in the form of small chips.

removal in the metal cutting
process may be performed either
by cutting tools having distinct cutting edges
or by abrasives used in grinding wheel,
abrasive sticks, abrasive
cloth, etc.

abrasives have a very large
number if hard grains with sharp edges which
remove metal from the workpiece
surface in such
operations as grinding.

All cutting tools can be divided into groups.

1.     Single
point tools

2.     Multi point tools

Single point cutting tools having a
wedge like action find a wide application on lathes, and slotting machines.

point cutting tools are merely two or more single
point cutting tools arranged
as a unit. The milling
cutter and broaching tool are good
example of this type.

The simplest form of cutting tool is the
single point tool. The cutting process as performed by multi point
tools closely resembles machining as performed by single point tools.

Orthogonal and oblique cutting

The two basic methods of metal cutting
using a single
point tool are the orthogonal or two dimensional, and the oblique
or three dimensional.

Orthogonal cutting takes place when the cutting face of the tool is 90o to the line of
action or path of tool. If, however,
the cutting face is inclined
at an angle less than 90o to the path of tool, the cutting
action is known as oblique.

The depth of cut is the same in both cases, and so is the feed, but the force which cuts or shears the metal acts on a larger area
in the case of the oblique tool

The oblique tool
will, thus, have
a longer life
as the heat developed per
unit area due to
friction along the tool workpiece interface is considerably small.

Alternatively, the oblique tool will
remove the more metal in the same life as an orthogonal tool.

In orthogonal cutting, where the cutting
edge of the tool is at right angle to the direction of the work, the chip coils
in a tight, flat spiral while in oblique cutting, where the cutting edge of the tool is inclined at the angle the chip flows sideways
in a long curl.

Orthogonal cutting in the machine shop
is confined mainly to such operations as knife
turning, broaching and slotting, the bulk of machining being done by oblique

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