Classification of Lathe

Classification of

(a) According to

  •  Horizontal

– Most common for
ergonomic conveniences

  • Vertical

– Occupies less floor
space, only some large lathes are of this type.

(b) According to purpose
of use

  •  General purpose

– Very versatile where
almost all possible types of operations are carried out on wide ranges of size,
shape and materials of jobs; example : centre lathes

  •  Single purpose 

Only one (occasionally
two) type of operation is done on limited ranges of size and material of jobs;
example – facing lathe, roll turning lathe etc.

  •  Special purpose – Where a
    definite number and type of operations are done repeatedly over long time
    on a specific type of blank; example: gear blank machining lathe

(c)  According to
size or capacity

  •   Small (low duty) –

 In such light duty
lathes (up to 1.1 kW), only small and medium size jobs of generally soft and
easily machinable materials are machined

  •  Medium (medium duty) –
    These lathes of power nearly up to 11 kW are most versatile and commonly

  •  Large (heavy duty) 

  •  Mini or micro lathe –
    These are tiny table-top lathes used for extremely small size jobs and
    precision work; example : Swiss type automatic lathe 

(d)  According to
degree of automation

  •  Non-automatic  –
    Almost all the handling operations are done manually; example: centre

  •  Semi-automatic – Nearly
    half of the handling operations, irrespective of the processing operations,
    are done automatically and rest manually; example : capstan lathe, turret
    lathe, copying lathe relieving lathe etc. 

  • Automatic – Almost all the
    handling operations (and obviously all the processing operations) are done
    automatically; example – single spindle automatic (automatic lathe), Swiss
    type automatic lathe, etc. 

According to type of automation

  •  Fixed automation –
    Conventional; example – single spindle automatic, Swiss type automatic
    lathe etc.

  •   Flexible automation –
    Modern; example CNC lathe, turning centre etc. 

(f)  According to
configuration of the jobs being handled

  •  Bar type – Slender rod
    like jobs being held in collects 

  •  Chucking type – Disc type
    jobs being held in chucks 

  •  Housing type- Odd shape
    jobs, being held in face plate 

(g)  According to

  •   Ordinary 

  •  Precision (lathes) –
    These sophisticated lathes meant for high accuracy and finish and are
    relatively more expensive. 

According to number of spindles

  •  Single spindle –

  •  Multi spindle (2, 4, 6 or
    8 spindles) – Such uncommon lathes are suitably used for fast and mass
    production of small size and simple shaped jobs

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